地球信息科学学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (11): 1456-1465.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2017.01456

• 地理空间分析综合应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

2010-2015年中国生物多样性保护优先区域人类干扰程度评估

刘慧明1, 高吉喜2,*(), 张海燕3, 马斅良3, 徐新良4   

  1. 1. 环境保护部卫星环境应用中心,北京100094
    2. 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所,南京 210042
    3. 中国地质大学地球科学与资源学院,北京 100083
    4. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-27 修回日期:2017-07-02 出版日期:2017-11-10 发布日期:2017-11-10
  • 通讯作者: 高吉喜 E-mail:gjx@nies.org
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘慧明(1982-),女,山西临县人,高级工程师,研究方向为生态遥感。E-mail: liuhm@secmep.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划项目“生物多样性保护与濒危物种保育技术研究及示范”(2012BAC01B08);环境保护部“生物多样性保护专项”

Human Disturbance Monitoring and Assessment in the Biodiversity Conservation Priority Area China

LIU Huiming1, GAO Jixi2,*(), ZHANG Haiyan3, MA Xiaoliang3, Xu Xinliang4   

  1. 1. Satellite Environment Center, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100094, China
    2. Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042, China
    3. School of Earth Sciences and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China
    4. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information Systems, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2017-04-27 Revised:2017-07-02 Online:2017-11-10 Published:2017-11-10
  • Contact: GAO Jixi E-mail:gjx@nies.org

摘要:

生物多样性是人类赖以生存与发展的基础。中国生物多样性保护优先区域集中分布着中国绝大多数的生物物种,如何保护好这些区域的生态系统和生物多样性,是实现可持续发展急需解决的问题。本文基于2010年和2015年的2期土地利用/覆被数据,应用人类干扰指数,分析了中国生物多样性保护优先区域人类干扰的程度及变化。结果表明:① 2015年中国生物多样性保护优先区域人类干扰程度以微度和轻度为主,15个优先区处于微度干扰,占优先区总面积的84.10%,13个处于轻度干扰,占优先区总面积的6.65%;华北平原黄土高原区和华东华中丘陵平原区人类干扰程度较高,而西南高山峡谷区、蒙新高原荒漠区和青藏高原高寒区人类干扰程度很低;② 2010-2015年,占优先区总面积84.54%的区域人类干扰程度基本持衡,人类干扰程度发生增加和下降的面积大致冲抵,生物多样性保护优先区域整体变化不大,华南低山丘陵区和东北山地平原区人类干扰程度较高,且升幅超过1%,华北平原黄土高原区降幅最大,为0.15%;③ 人类干扰程度较高且变化幅度大的区域,主要受经济发展对生态系统干扰及土地利用程度加深的影响,对农田、居民点及工矿交通用地的需求增加,退耕还林等部分生态工程实施有利于减少人类对生态系统的干扰程度。总体上看,全国32个生物多样性保护优先区域整体上人类干扰程度较低且变化幅度较小,且人类干扰程度高的区域分布较集中,说明国家生态保护各项政策与措施的实施对生物多样性保护起到了良好的促进作用,有利于生物多样性的保护。

关键词: 生物多样性保护优先区域, 人类干扰指数, 监测与评估

Abstract:

Biological diversity is the material basis for the survival and development of human being. Most of the species in China distribute in the priority areas of biodiversity conservation. How to protect ecosystems and biodiversity is an issue that needs to be solved for achieving sustainable development. Based on the land use and land cover data of 2010-2015, we analyzed the intensity and variation of the disturbance caused by human activities in thirty-two biodiversity conservation priority areas. The results showed that: (1) The human disturbance intensity in the biodiversity conservation priority areas was majorly at the slight and mild level in 2015. Fifteen biodiversity conservation priority areas were at the slight level, which covered 84.10% of the total area. Thirteen biodiversity conservation priority areas were at the mild level, which covered 6.65% of the total area. Regions of North China Plain and Loess Plateau and Middle-East China hilly and plain region were at the highest level of human disturbance. The mountains and canyons in the southwest, the desertification region of the Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang plateau and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were at the very low level of human disturbance. (2) Human disturbance indices of the most regions basically did not change from 2010 to 2015, which covered 84.54% of the total area. The area where human disturbance index increased was equal to that where human disturbance index decrease. Overall, the change of biodiversity conservation priority area was not obvious. The human disturbance index of the hilly area in South China and mountain and plains in the northeast experienced the highest growth and increased over 1%. The human disturbance index of North China Plain and Loess Plateau suffered the sharpest drop and decreased by 0.15%. (3) These regions with higher levels and larger variations of human disturbance degrees were mainly affected by the ecosystem disturbance caused by economic development and the intensive land use due to the increase of the demand for cultivated land, residential land and industry and mining land. Some ecological projects including Grain for Green project were favorable for reducing the ecosystem disturbance caused by human activities. Overall, human disturbance indices of thirty-two biodiversity conservation priority areas of China were very low and varied within a small range. Furthermore, regions with high human disturbance indices have comparatively concentrated distribution. These indicated that the implementation of the national ecological protection policies and measures played a good role in improving biodiversity protection.

Key words: priority area of biodiversity conservation, human disturbance index, monitoring and assessment