地球信息科学学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (12): 1557-1566.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2017.01557

• 山洪/泥石流灾害时空特征分析 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国历史山洪灾害分布特征研究

刘樯漪1,2(), 程维明1,3,*(), 孙东亚4,5, 王楠1,2, 方月6   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心,南京 210023
    4. 中国水利水电科学研究院,北京 100038
    5. 水利部防洪抗旱减灾工程技术研究中心,北京 100038
    6. 中国人民解放军91039部队,北京 102401
  • 收稿日期:2017-07-10 修回日期:2017-08-28 出版日期:2017-12-25 发布日期:2017-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 程维明 E-mail:liuqy.15s@igsnrr.ac.cn;chengwm@lreis.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘樯漪(1993-),女,硕士生,主要从事流域地貌研究。E-mail: liuqy.15s@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    基金项目:水科院全国山洪灾害调查评价项目(SHZH-IWHR-57);特色研究所培育建设服务项目(Y55R0904YZ);资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室自主创新项目(088RAA04YA).

Distribution Characteristics of Historical Mountain Flood in China

LIU Qiangyi1,2, CHENG Weiming1,3,*(), SUN Dongya4,5, WANG Nan1,2, FANG Yue6   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
    4. China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
    5. Research Center on Flood and Drought Reduction, Beijing 100038, China
    6. 91039 Troops of PLA, Beijing 102401, China
  • Received:2017-07-10 Revised:2017-08-28 Online:2017-12-25 Published:2017-12-25
  • Contact: CHENG Weiming E-mail:liuqy.15s@igsnrr.ac.cn;chengwm@lreis.ac.cn

摘要:

中国山洪灾害发生频繁,区域分布差异性明显且难以预报,关于山洪灾害分布特征的研究对于山洪灾害预警、山洪灾害防治区规划等具有重要意义。本文以历史山洪灾害点为基础数据,以6个一级地貌大区(东部平原低山丘陵大区(Ⅰ)、东南低山丘陵平原大区(Ⅱ)、华北-内蒙东中山高原大区(Ⅲ)、西北高中山盆地高原大区(Ⅳ)、西南中低山高原盆地大区(Ⅴ)、青藏高原高山极高山盆地谷地大区(Ⅵ))为基本分析单元,统计对比不同地貌区域内山洪灾害数目、密度,并进一步分析山洪灾害随高程、高程标准差以及50年一遇6 h雨量(H6-50)的分布情况,从而获得中国历史山洪灾害的主要分布特征。结果表明:山洪灾害集中分布于东南低山丘陵平原大区及西南中低山高原盆地大区,占全国山洪灾害的60%左右。6 h雨量(H6-50)处于240~280 mm区域山洪灾害密度最大。高程标准差小于30 m区域山洪灾害密度较大。东南低山丘陵平原大区高程处于10~50 m间,高程标准差小于30 m,雨量(H6-50)在150~270 mm间地区山洪灾害密度较大;西南中低山高原盆地大区山洪灾害集中分布于高程600 m以下,高程标准差小于50 m,雨量(H6-50)大于120 mm地区。以地貌区划结果为基本分析单元相对于行政界线而言更有助于分析山洪灾害分布特征。

关键词: 山洪灾害, 地貌区划, 空间分布, 雨量(H6-50), 高程标准差

Abstract:

Mountain flood is difficult to predict and distributes differently. It is one of the major natural disasters in China. Analysis on the distribution characteristics of mountain flood is helpful to disaster prevention. This paper takes historical mountain flood disaster points as based-data and analyzes the relation between disaster points and altitude, rainfall (H6-50), altitude standard deviation in different geomorphologic zones. Results shows that among the 6 geomorphologic zones, the historical mountain flood disasters mainly distribute in zone II and zone V, nearly 60% of the whole disasters. Also, density of mountain flood disaster reaches its high point with rainfall (H6-50) ranging from 240 to 280 mm, altitude standard smaller than 30 m. With the increase of rainfall (H6-50), the mountain flood density tends to increase first and then decline, taking 280 mm as a turning point. What’s more, the mountain flood density reaches its climax with altitude standard smaller than 30 m. In zone I, mountain flood disaster density reaches its high point with rainfall (H6-50) ranging from 240 to 300 mm, altitude from 60 to 120 m, altitude standard smaller than 30 m. For zone II, mountain flood disaster density reaches its high point when rainfall (H6-50) ranging from 150 to 270 mm, altitude from 10 to 50 m, altitude standard smaller than 30 m. Mountain flood disaster in zone V mainly distribute in the area where rainfall (H6-50) higher than 120 mm, altitude under 600 m, altitude standard smaller than 50 m. It is clear that taking the geomorphologic zoning as an analysis unit is much better than administrative boundary.

Key words: mountain flood, geomorphologic zone, spatial distribution, rainfall (H6-60), altitude standard