地球信息科学学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (9): 1217-1226.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2016.01217

• 地理空间分析综合应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

环长株潭城市群湿地生态安全研究

廖柳文(), 秦建新*   

  1. 湖南师范大学资源与环境科学学院,长沙 410081
  • 收稿日期:2016-03-08 修回日期:2016-04-08 出版日期:2016-09-27 发布日期:2016-09-27
  • 通讯作者: 秦建新 E-mail:qjxzxd@sina.com
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:廖柳文(1990-),女,湖南醴陵人,硕士生,研究方向为GIS应用。E-mail: liaoliuwen_12@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国土资源部公益性行业科研专项(201511004-3)湖南省“十二五”重点学科项目

Ecological Security of Wetland in Chang-Zhu-Tan Urban Agglomeration

LIAO Liuwen(), QIN Jianxin*   

  1. College of Resources and Environmental Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
  • Received:2016-03-08 Revised:2016-04-08 Online:2016-09-27 Published:2016-09-27
  • Contact: QIN Jianxin E-mail:qjxzxd@sina.com

摘要:

本文选取环长株潭城市群为研究区域,以Landsat TM影像解译后的土地利用数据、MODIS影像计算的植被指数,以及人口、经济和气候数据等为数据源,基于“压力-状态-响应”框架模型构建湿地生态安全评价指标体系对该区域2000-2010年湿地生态安全进行综合评价。结果表明:(1)环长株潭城市群2000、2005、2010年湿地生态安全指数均值分别为0.7268、0.7151和0.7196,湿地生态安全状态“良好”,生态安全等级程度为“较安全”。(2)环长株潭城市群区域差异性明显,一级湿地生态安全区主要分布在洞庭湖周边,二级湿地生态安全区沿主要河流分布,三级湿地生态安全区主要分布在2个或3个城市之间的交界区域。(3)研究期间环长株潭城市群湿地面积变化明显,该区域湿地总面积逐年减少;森林沼泽、草本沼泽、湖泊、河流、水田的斑块分维数均呈增加趋势;水库/坑塘、河流破碎度指数明显高于其他景观类型,湿地生态系统服务价值总体减少。在此基础上,从土地利用变化与转型、湿地景观结构与功能、自然因素等方面对影响该区域湿地生态安全的主要驱动因子进行了分析。结果表明,人类社会经济活动直接作用于湿地生态环境,通过改变区域景观和土地利用结构使湿地面积发生变化,直接影响湿地生态安全。气温、降水等气候因素通过改变水热状况和植被覆盖,间接影响湿地生态安全。针对该区域湿地生态安全存在的问题,建议在发展过程中正确处理好经济与生态环境之间的关系,尽可能减少人类活动对湿地生态环境的干扰。

关键词: 湿地, 生态安全, 环长株潭城市群, PSR模型

Abstract:

This paper takes Chang-Zhu-Tan Urban Agglomeration as study area. Based on the vegetation index and land use data interpreted from Landsat TM images and combined with the population, economic and climate data, a framework model was established. The results show that: (1) the mean values of wetland ecological security index in 2000, 2005 and 2010 for Chang-Zhu-Tan Urban Agglomeration were 0.7268, 0.7151 and 0.7196, respectively. The status of regional wetland ecological security was good, and the ecological security degree was relatively safe. In the recent decade, the overall performance of the regional ecological security index had decreased, and the decrease of the corresponding area was 21577 km2, which accounted for 22.28% of the total land area; (2) in this study area, there is obvious difference of regional ecological security, that the first-class wetland ecological safety area mainly distributed in the surrounding regions of Dongting Lake, the second-class ecological safety region distributed along the major rivers, the third-class ecological safety area mainly distributed in the border area of two or three cities, and the fourth-class wetland ecological safety area mainly distributed in Yueyang city, Xiangtan city, Changsha city and Hengyang city. (3) During the study period, the area of wetland in Chang-Zhu-Tan Urban Agglomeration has changed obviously, that the total area of wetland has decreased year after year. The fractal dimension of forest swamp, herbaceous swamp, lake, river and paddy field showed an increasing trend. The fragmentation index of ponds/rivers was significantly higher than that of other types of landscape, and the value of wetland ecosystem services was decreasing in general. Finally, the main factors affecting the ecological security of wetland were analyzed from the aspects of land use change and transition, and wetland landscape structure and function.

Key words: wetland, ecological security, Chang-Zhu-Tan urban agglomeration, pressure- state-response model