地球信息科学学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (2): 216-224.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2017.00216

• 地理空间分析综合应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

福州市农田土壤养分空间变异特征

陈桂香1,2(), 高灯州1,2, 曾从盛1,2,3,*(), 王维奇1,2,3   

  1. 1. 福建师范大学地理科学学院,福州 350007
    2. 湿润亚热带生态地理过程教育部重点实验室,福州 350007
    3. 福建师范大学亚热带湿地研究中心,福州 350007
  • 收稿日期:2016-03-15 修回日期:2016-06-23 出版日期:2017-02-28 发布日期:2017-02-17
  • 通讯作者: 曾从盛 E-mail:ch_guixiang@163.com;cszeng@fjnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:陈桂香(1991-),女,硕士生,主要从事生态环境研究。E-mail: ch_guixiang@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571287、31000209);福建省科技厅重点项目(2014Y0054);福建省公益类研究所项目(2014R1034-3);福建省自然科学基金项目(2014J01119)

Characteristics of the Spatial Variation of Soil Nutrients in Farmland of Fuzhou City

CHEN Guixiang1,2(), GAO Dengzhou1,2, ZENG Congsheng1,2,3,*(), WANG Weiqi2,3   

  1. 1. School of Geographical Sciences, Fujian Normal Universities, Fuzhou 350007, China
    2, Key Laboratory of Humid Sub-tropical Eco-geographical Process of Ministry of Education, Fuzhou 350007, China
    3, Research Centre of Wetlands inSubtropical Region, Fuzhou 350007, China
  • Received:2016-03-15 Revised:2016-06-23 Online:2017-02-28 Published:2017-02-17
  • Contact: ZENG Congsheng E-mail:ch_guixiang@163.com;cszeng@fjnu.edu.cn

摘要:

研究农田土壤养分空间分布特征及变异规律,分析地形因子对土壤养分空间分布的影响,对土壤养分的有效利用与管理具有重要意义。本文采用GIS和地统计学相结合的方法,揭示东南丘陵区福州市农田土壤养分(有机质、碱解氮、有效磷和速效钾)的空间分布特征和变异规律,并进一步探讨土壤养分含量与地形因子(地形起伏度、高程、地形湿度指数、沉积运输指数和坡度)之间的相关性。结果表明:福州市农田有机质、碱解氮、有效磷和速效钾含量范围分别为1.10~89.5 g/kg、 1.00~461 mg/kg、0.300~298 mg/kg、和4.00~399 mg/kg,其变异系数范围为35.3%~99.0%,均属于中等变异水平;区域内耕地土壤养分存在明显的空间丰缺差异,大部分地区有机质和有效磷含量较为丰富,碱解氮含量处于中等偏上水平,速效钾含量相对较低;有机质、碱解氮、有效磷和速效钾的块金系数分别为32.0%、37.3%、50.0%和50.0%,均呈中等强度空间自相关,表明同时受到结构和随机因素控制;有机质和碱解氮空间自相关尺度较大,且在步长小于0.3 km时,各方向(0°、45°、90°和135°)变化平稳,为各向同性,而有效磷和速效钾变程较小,且各方向变化较复杂,为各向异性。这些结果表明,政府需加强施肥指导,保持氮肥施用量的同时,合理增加钾肥,适当降低有机肥和磷肥施用。此外,在后续调查采样时,样点布设要考虑密度和方向性,适当加密有效磷和速效钾的采样,而有机质和碱解氮采样可以在此基础上适当减少样点。

关键词: GIS, 地统计学, 农田, 土壤养分, 空间变异, 地形因子, 福州市

Abstract:

It is very important to study the characteristics of spatial pattern and variation of soil nutrients and analyze the effect of topographical factors on the spatial distribution of soil nutrients for the effective use and management of soil nutrients. In this paper, the combination of GIS and Geostatistics methods were applied to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics and variation pattern of soil nutrients (organic matter, available nitrogen, available phosphors and available potassium) in the agricultural land of southeast hilly area of Fuzhou. We further studied the correlation between soil nutrients content and topographical factors (topography degrees, elevation, topographic wetness index, deposition and transport index and gradient). The results showed that: the range of organic matter, available nitrogen, available phosphors and available potassium contents were between 1.10~89.5 g/kg, 1.00~461 mg/kg, 0.300~298 mg/kg, 4.00~399 mg/kg and the range of variation coefficients were 35.3~99.0%, which belonged to moderate variability. There was obviously different in the spatial abundance of soil nutrients in the cultivated land. In most of the area, the organic matter and available phosphors content were abundant, available nitrogen content was a little above average level and available potassium content was relatively scarce. The nugget coefficient of organic matter, available nitrogen, available phosphors and available potassium were 32.0%, 37.3%,50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. They were medium spatial autocorrelation, indicating that they were controlled by structure and randomness. Spatial autocorrelation scale of organic matter and available nitrogen were large. They change smoothly in each direction (0°, 45°, 90° and 135°) when the step length was less than 0.3 km.and are isotropic. The variation of effective phosphorus and available potassium was small. Their direction of change was complex and they are anisotropy. These results suggested that the government needed to strengthen guidance of fertilization. Nitrogen fertilizer amount should be maintained and the potash should be increased reasonably. The organic fertilizer and phosphate fertilization should be decreased.. In addition, in the subsequent investigation, the setup of sample points should consider density and direction and appropriately increase the sampling of effective phosphorus and available potassium while nitrogen and organic matter and alkali solution sampling can be reduced based on the study.

Key words: GIS, geostatistics, farmland, soil nutrient, spatial variation, topographic factor, Fuzhou City