地球信息科学学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (9): 1338-1349.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2018.180059

• 遥感科学与应用技术 • 上一篇    下一篇

1970-2016年青藏高原岗扎日冰川变化与物质平衡遥感监测研究

张震1(), 刘时银2,3,4,*()   

  1. 1. 安徽理工大学测绘学院,淮南 232001
    2. 云南省国际河流与跨境生态安全重点实验室,昆明 650500
    3. 云南大学国际河流与生态安全研究院,昆明 650500
    4. 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室,兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-19 修回日期:2018-06-20 出版日期:2018-09-25 发布日期:2018-10-11
  • 通讯作者: 刘时银 E-mail:zhangzhen@aust.edu.cn;liusy@lzb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张震(1988-),男,安徽太和人,讲师,研究方向为冰川遥感。E-mail: zhangzhen@aust.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41701087、41701061);科技部科技基础性工作专项项目(2013FY111400);云南大学引进人才科研项目(YJRC3201702)

Area Changes and Mass Balance of Glaciers in KangzhagRi of the Tibetan Plateau from 1970 to 2016 Derived from Remote Sensing Data

ZHANG Zhen1(), LIU Shiyin2,3,4,*()   

  1. 1. School of Geomatics, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001,China
    2. Yunnan Key Laboratory of International Rivers and Transboundary Eco-Security, Kunming 650500,China
    3. Institute of International Rivers and Eco-Security, Yunnan University, Kunming 650500, China
    4. State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2018-01-19 Revised:2018-06-20 Online:2018-09-25 Published:2018-10-11
  • Contact: LIU Shiyin E-mail:zhangzhen@aust.edu.cn;liusy@lzb.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41701087, 41701061;Fundamental Program from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST), No.013FY111400;Research Funds Provided to New Recruitments of Yunnan University, No.YJRC3201702.

摘要:

可可西里处于青藏高原腹地,是青藏高原自然环境的交接与过渡地带。近年来该区域冰川物质平衡可能有从西向东由正转负的趋势,但是其过渡地带岗扎日地区冰川状态未知。本研究利用地形图、SRTM、ASTER和Landsat等资料分析了岗扎日地区冰川面积变化和物质平衡变化,并对可可西里地区冰川变化空间规律进行了探讨,结果表明:①1970-2016年岗扎日冰川总面积年均缩小率为0.08±0.02%。2006年后冰川退缩趋势减缓。②1970-2012年岗扎日冰川平均减薄-8.64±0.30 m,体积减少1.45±0.06 km3,平均物质平衡为-0.21±0.01 m w.e. a-1。冰川物质平衡趋势由负转正(1970-1999年:-0.34±0.01 m w.e. a-1;1999-2012:0.16±0.02 w.e. a-1)。③东南、南、西南朝向作为迎风坡,1970年以来其冰川物质亏损较小,1999-2012年呈现强烈的正平衡。冰川面积变化滞后于物质平衡变化,东朝向和东南朝向冰川面积缩小率最大,主要是因为冰川冰舌较长,末端所处的海拔较低。④气温升高是岗扎日冰川1970-1999年呈现负物质平衡状态的主因,降水增多是1999-2012年正平衡状态的主因。⑤可可西里地区冰川1970s以来面积年均缩小率从西向东不断增大、物质平衡下降,与西风环流和季风环流相关,但局地气候也影响冰川变化和物质平衡。

关键词: 可可西里, 岗扎日, 冰川变化, 物质平衡, 遥感

Abstract:

Hoh Xil is located in the central Tibetan Plateau, and is the transitional zone of the natural environment of the Tibetan Plateau. In recent years, the mass balance of the glaciers in this region has a trend of positive turning to negative from west to east. However, mass change of glaciers in KangzhagRi, as the transition zone of Hoh Xil region, is unknown due to its inaccessibility and high labour costs. Glacier mass changes in KangzhaRi were determined using geodetic methods based on digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from the topographic map (1970), ASTER (2012) and Shuttle Radar Terrain Mission (SRTM) data (2000). Glacier area changes between 1970 and 2016 were derived from the topographic map, ASTER, and Landsat data. Results show that KangzhaRi has 50 glaciers with an area of 162.6±1.3 km2 in 2016. Average glacier area change was observed to be -0.08±0.02% a-1 from 1970 to 2016. Weak area shrinkage of glaciers by 0.04±0.30% a-1 during 2006-2012 and 0.01±0.38% a-1 during 2012-2016. The glaciers in this region have experienced an overall loss of 1.45±0.06 km3 in ice volume or -0.21±0.01 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1 from 1970 to 2012. The glaciers lost mass at a rate of -0.34 ± 0.01 m w.e.a-1 during 1970-1999, while gained mass at a rate of 0.16±0.02 m w.e.a-1 during 1999-2012. Glaciers with southeastern, southern, southwestern aspect showed a slight mass loss during 1970-2012, while gained most mass during 1999-2012. However, Glaciers with southeastern and eastern aspect showed more stable in the ice cover area. Because these glaciers have a long tongue with low terminal altitudes with a little mass supply from accumulation region. Air temperature rises contribute to the loss of glacier mass during 1970-1999, while precipitation increase contributes to the gain of glacier mass during 1999-2012. Glacier area reduction from 1970s shows a trend of low to high from the west to east, and the mass balance gradually decreases from the west to east. Glacier variations in KangzhagRi were not only related to westerly circulation and monsoon circulation, but also related to local circulation. Recent mass change might be a response to the changing atmospheric circulation pattern.

Key words: Hoh Xil, KangzhagRi, glacier change, mass change, remote sensing