地球信息科学学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (5): 641-653.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2019.180487

• 地球信息科学理论与方法 • 上一篇    下一篇

村镇应急公共设施选址布局优化研究

詹庆明*(), 杨爽   

  1. 武汉大学城市设计学院,武汉 430072
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-22 修回日期:2019-02-27 出版日期:2019-05-25 发布日期:2019-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 詹庆明 E-mail:qmzhan@whu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:詹庆明(1964-),男,福建永安人,博士生导师,研究方向为数字化城乡规划与管理。E-mail: qmzhan@whu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划项目(2014BAL05B07)

Optimization of Emergency Facilities Layout in Villages

Qingming ZHAN*(), Shuang YANG   

  1. School of Urban Design, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
  • Received:2018-09-22 Revised:2019-02-27 Online:2019-05-25 Published:2019-05-25
  • Contact: Qingming ZHAN E-mail:qmzhan@whu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Science and Technology Support Program, No.2014BAL05B07.

摘要:

应急公共设施对防灾减灾具有重要作用,但相关研究和实践通常围绕城市展开,中国村镇地域广阔、环境复杂,传统方法规划的应急公共设施布局无法满足村镇的需求。因此,针对村镇进行更加精细化的应急公共设施布局优化十分必要。本文主要研究内容包括:① 建立包括地理因素、交通条件、人口分布情况和危险源分布情况在内的应急设施适宜性用地指标体系,并避免在地质灾害、洪水等灾害高发区域建设;② 对仅需要承担应急服务的设施,建立集合覆盖模型和最大化覆盖模型两级选址模型进行分析,对需要承担公共服务和应急服务双重任务的设施,建立集合覆盖模型和p-中值模型进行分析;③ 以响应覆盖率、交叉响应率作为效率性评价指标,最大响应时间、平均响应时间作为公平性评价指标,综合评价设施选址方案。本文以神农架林区松柏镇为研究区域,以消防设施和应急医疗救助中心分别作为两类典型应急公共设施进行布局,得到以下结论:① 应急设施适宜性用地评价指标体系能够综合评价应急设施选址时需要考虑的各种因素,具有较强的实用性;② 对多选址方案进行对比,模型计算结果在效率性和公平性指标方面优于原选址方案,同时结合人口分布、实际用地情况和成本因素能够确定更为优化的布局方案,验证了方法的可行性和科学性。

关键词: 村镇, 应急公共设施, 选址, 合理性评价, 神农架松柏镇

Abstract:

Emergency facilities play an important role in disaster prevention and mitigation. However, most of the relevant studies and practices usually focus on urban areas. Villages and towns in China are vast in territory and complex in environment. Because of the low level of economic development in the past and out-dated emergency facilities developed by traditional layout methods in China, these places become vulnerable to disaster . In this case, quantitative study on the layout evaluation and optimization of emergency facilities in villages is necessary. With the view of “the demand points distribution - identifying facilities alternative sites based on the suitability evaluation for emergency facilities - model construction and application-rationality evaluation of site selection schemes and planning proposals”, this paper concentrates on the construction of emergency facilities and attempts to establish a relatively reasonable method for emergency facilities layout in villages. The main contents of the article are as follows: (1) establishing suitability evaluation index system for emergency facilities from geographical conditions, traffic conditions, population distribution, and hazard sources distribution. In particular, safety issues are considered to avoid the constructions in areas with high incidence of geological disasters, floods, and other disasters; (2) building location model which consists of set cover model and maximum coverage model to analyze emergency facilities that only need to undertake emergency service and building location model which consists of set cover model and P-median model to analyze emergency facilities that need to undertake both emergency service and public service; and (3) taking response coverage and cross-response rate as the efficiency evaluation indicators, while the maximum response time and average response time from demand point to their nearest facilities are used as the fairness evaluation indicators. Both indicators are used to evaluate multi-schemes generated by the location models. In this paper, Songbai Town of Shennongjia in Hubei province is taken as the research area, fire stations and emergency medical centers are used as two typical types of emergency facilities for this research. The results show that: (1) the suitability evaluation index system can comprehensively reflect various factors synthetically; and (2) the model calculation results are superior to the original schemes in terms of efficiency and fairness indicator. However, the more optimized layout schemes need to be determined together with population distribution, local situation, and cost factors. Thus, the proposed method has good feasibility and reliability.

Key words: villages and towns, emergency facilities, location selection, rationality evaluation, Songbai Town of Shennongjia