地理研究 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (8): 1452-1460.doi: 10.11821/yj2010080010

• 环境与生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

内蒙古农牧交错带生态工程成效实证调查和分析

胡云锋1, 刘纪远1, 齐永青2, 师华定3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所 农业资源研究中心,石家庄 050021;
    3. 中国环境科学研究院,北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2009-08-29 修回日期:2009-12-17 出版日期:2010-08-25 发布日期:2010-08-30
  • 作者简介:
    胡云锋(1974-),男,江西赣州人,博士,副研究员。主要从事蒙古高原资源环境综合监测与评价研究。E-mail:huyf@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    科技部科技支撑计划(2006BAC08B05);国家自然科学基金(40701150、40971223);瑞典科学基金亚洲联系项目;中科院地理资源所青年人才领域前沿项目(O7H70163AR)

Positivist analysis on the effects of ecological projects in the farming-pastoral transition belt of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

HU Yun-feng1, LIU Ji-yuan1, QI Yong-qing2, SHI Hua-ding3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, CAS, Shijiazhuang 050021, China;
    3. Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 100012, China
  • Received:2009-08-29 Revised:2009-12-17 Online:2010-08-25 Published:2010-08-30

摘要:

作为生态工程的参与者和受影响者,农牧民对生态工程成效的评价、对未来生态工程措施的选择倾向具有重要的决策参考价值。将结构化问卷调查与开放式访谈相结合,对内蒙古自治区武川县、四子王旗和太仆寺旗3个旗县生态工程建设情况进行了调查研究。结果表明:退耕还林还草、围封禁牧以及季节性休牧是本区主要的生态工程类型;基于个体体验,农牧民并不认为生态工程取得了良好的、显著的生态效益;生态工程对农牧民的影响表现为"减产、提效、增收";对于未来的工程措施,农牧民优先选择限制牲畜数量,其次是退耕以及保护退化草地;绝大多数农牧民支持有补偿条件下进一步退耕和生态移民。本文进而给出了一些研究和政策建议。

关键词: 内蒙古, 生态工程, 工程成效, 实证分析

Abstract:

As the participants and affected persons of ecological projects in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region during the past decade, local farmers should be involved when we assess the effects and efficiency of those ecological projects, and their comments and favorites should also be paid more attention when the government makes decisions on the future ecological project planning. Using questionnaire-based investigation and positivist analysis methods, this paper aimed to explore the ecological project effects in the typical farming-pastoral transitional zone of northern China. The survey covered 144 families in 3 counties of Inner Mongolia (Taipusi Qi, Wuchuan County, and Siziwang Qi). Results showed: (1) Returning cropland to forest/grassland, enclosing grassland to prevent grazing, and seasonal delaying grazing were the 3 main types of ecological project. A high participation rate was closely related to the family's core business. (2) Based on an integrated assessment taking into account water, soil, atmospheric and biological factors, local farmers' responses referred that they did not think the past ecological projects brought obvious and favorable post-effects for the local environments, although our detailed study indicated that ecological projects had prevented local environmental degradation, reduced sandstorm frequency, and increased the number of wild animal species. (3) Family income and the productivities of tillage and husbandry were promoted after the implementation of ecological projects, though the gross yields of grain and livestock were decreased. The critical factors affecting family income included farming/herding production technology and geographical location. (4) Limiting livestock's amounts, returning farmland, and protecting degraded grassland were the 3 most favorite measures to protect/restore local ecosystems for local framers. Further measures for returning farmland and eco-migration would be supported if compensation was enough. The rate of support was related to family income, available labor transfer approaches, and subsequent guarantees.

Key words: Inner Mongolia, ecological project, effects assessment, questionnaire-based investigation, positivist analysis