地球信息科学学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (5): 875-887.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2022.210496

• 地球信息科学理论与方法 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于弱势人群个体可达性评价的社区服务设施配置研究

钟家晖1(), 易芳蓉2, 何正国1, 程国荣3, 黄铎2,4,*()   

  1. 1.广州市城市规划自动化中心,广州 510030
    2.华南理工大学建筑学院,广州 510641
    3.广州邦城信息技术有限公司,广州 510640
    4.亚热带建筑科学国家重点实验室,广州 510641
  • 收稿日期:2021-08-24 修回日期:2021-11-11 出版日期:2022-05-25 发布日期:2022-07-25
  • 通讯作者: * 黄 铎(1973— ),男,湖北荆州人,副教授,主要从事国土空间规划中数字技术及应用研究。 E-mail: huangduo@scut.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:钟家晖(1964— ),男,江西赣州人,教授级高工,主要从事城市规划管理中数字技术应用研究。E-mail: 1917669538@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(52078217)

Research on Allocation of Community Service Facilities based on Evaluation of Individual Accessibility of Vulnerable People

ZHONG Jiahui1(), YI Fangrong2, HE Zhengguo1, CHENG Guorong3, HUANG Duo2,4,*()   

  1. 1. Guangzhou Urban Planning Automation Center, Guangzhou 510030,China
    2. School of Architecture, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China
    3. Guangzhou Bangcheng Information Technology Co., Ltd., Guangzhou 510640, China
    4. State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, Guangzhou 510641, China
  • Received:2021-08-24 Revised:2021-11-11 Online:2022-05-25 Published:2022-07-25
  • Contact: HUANG Duo
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(52078217)

摘要:

当前我国人口形势面临老龄化与少子化风险,抓好“一老一小”、确保老有所养和幼有所育成为我国城乡发展中特别关注的方面。在这一背景下,如何营造有利于养老和生育的社会环境,如何针对老年人、育龄妇女和儿童等弱势人群提供更为合理的设施配置成为民生工程的重要内容。社区服务设施作为城市公共服务的空间载体,其配置模式的完善与提升是落实以人为本、集中体现社会公平的重要路径。当前,从网络地图规划路径API获取的出行时间成本矩阵能够为可达性研究提供接近真实的出行时间数据,此外个体化的人口数据如实有人口数据能够以其丰富的属性信息为识别各类弱势人群提供依据,同时精确刻画人口的空间分布。本文基于弱势人群的需求特征与相关规范,对老年人、育龄妇女和儿童三类弱势人群提出了明确定义,并构建了面向各类弱势人群个体使用需求的社区服务设施供给标准。在此基础上,利用实有人口数据、网络地图出行时间成本矩阵和POI数据,综合考虑社区服务设施的服务容量,提出了基于弱势人群个体可达性评价的社区服务设施供给评价与布局优化方法,并以广州市人民南社区为例进行了应用实践。研究表明,人民南社区的弱势人群服务设施供给存在不足,优化配置后设施的供需情况更加合理,服务人口覆盖率亦明显提升。本文提出的方法能够从独立个体尺度精确评价社区弱势人群服务设施的布局合理性,在拓展数据类型及应用方法方面为当前人口形势下精细化研究服务设施的空间分布和供需问题提供新的思路。

关键词: 弱势人群, 个体, 可达性, 社区服务设施, 实有人口数据, 出行时间成本矩阵, 服务容量, 供给评价

Abstract:

The current population situation in China is facing the risks of aging and declining birthrates. Paying attention to "the elderly and children" and ensuring that the elderly are supported and children are raised has become a special concern in Chinese urban and rural development. In this context, how to create a social environment conducive to old-age care and childbirth has become an important topic of social construction, and the allocation of facilities for vulnerable groups such as children, women of childbearing age, and the elderly has also become an important part of the people's livelihood project. As the spatial carrier of urban public services, improving the allocation mode of community service facilities is an important way to implement the people-oriented concept and embody social equity. At present, the travel time cost matrix obtained from the network map planning path API can provide near-real travel time data for accessibility research. In addition, individualized population data, such as the actual population data, can provide a basis for identifying various vulnerable groups with its rich attribute information and accurately describe the spatial distribution of the population. Considering the demand and characteristics of vulnerable people and relevant legal regulations, this paper puts forward a clear definition of three vulnerable groups: children, women of childbearing age, and the elderly, and constructs the supply standard of community service facilities which is oriented to the individual demand of these three vulnerable groups. On this basis, using the actual population data, the travel time cost matrix from network map, and data points of interest and comprehensively considering the capacity of community service facilities, the paper proposes a method to evaluate the community service facility supply and layout optimization by individual evaluation of the accessibility of vulnerable people. We take the Renminnan South Community in Guangzhou as an example to verify our method. The result shows that the supply of service facilities for vulnerable people in Renminnan community is insufficient. After the optimized configuration, the supply and demand situation of the facilities become more reasonable, and the coverage of service is also significantly improved. The method proposed in this paper can accurately evaluate the rationality of the layout of current community service facilities for vulnerable people from individual scale, thereby providing new ideas for detailed study of spatial distribution of community service facilities under the current population situation.

Key words: vulnerable people, individual, accessibility, community service facilities, actual population data, travel time cost matrix, service capacity, supply evaluation