Changing Characteristic of Land Surface Evapotranspiration and Soil Moisture in China during the Past 30 Years

  • 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

Received date: 2011-11-04

  Revised date: 2012-02-01

  Online published: 2012-02-24


The land surface evapotranspiration (ET) and soil moisture used in this paper were retrieved from land surface model (LSM) of NOAH. The variation of land surface ET and soil moisture was analyzed by statistics in six large regions and by four ecosystem types in China. Then the relationship between ET and soil moisture was discussed. The long term trend of land surface ET was increasing in China. The maximum ET occurred in July, while the minimum one was usually at the beginning/end of a year. The trend of ET in South-Central China, Southwest China, East China, Northeast China and Northwestern China was also increasing, agreed with the whole China. The long term variation trend of ET was decreasing in North China, where the maximum ET was 43.091 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) in 1990. The relative ratio of evapotranspiration of forest was the highest among all the ecosystem types in Northeast, East, Southwest and South-Central China, while the highest one was grassland in North and Northwest China. To compare the amount of water used by evapotranspiration, the biggest forest ET was in Southwest and South Central China, the smallest was in Northwest China; the biggest grassland ET was in Southwest China, the smallest was in Northeast China; the biggest farmland ET was in East China, the smallest was in Northwest China; the biggest ET for desert and wet land was in Northwest and Northeast China respectively. The soil moisture was decreasing in most China regions except for that in Northwest China ever since 1980s, agreed with the whole China. The main impact factors of ET were vegetation fraction and soil moisture. There existed a good relationship between soil water content and evapotranspiration in rare vegetation covered regions.

Cite this article

BING Longfei, SU Hongbo, SHAO Quanqin, LIU Jiyuan . Changing Characteristic of Land Surface Evapotranspiration and Soil Moisture in China during the Past 30 Years[J]. Journal of Geo-information Science, 2012 , 14(1) : 1 -13 . DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2012.00001


[1] Li Z, Tang R, Wan Z, et al. A review of current methodologies for regional evapotranspiration estimation from remotely sensed data[J]. Sensors, 2009, 9(5): 3801-3853.

[2] Allen R G, Pereira L S, Howell T A, et al. Evapotranspiration information reporting: II. Recommended documentation[J]. Agricultural Water Management, 2011, 98(6): 921-929.

[3] Allen R G, Pereira L S, Howell T A, et al. Evapotranspiration information reporting: I. Factors governing measurement accuracy[J]. Agricultural Water Management, 2011, 98(6): 899-920.

[4] Dingman S L. Physical hydrology[M]: Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994.

[5] 王书功,康尔泗, 金博文,等. 黑河山区草地蒸散发量估算方法研究[J]. 冰川冻土, 2003, 25(5): 558-565.

[6] Rana G, Katerji N. Measurement and estimation of actual evapotranspiration in the field under Mediterranean climate: Areview[J]. European Journal of Agronomy, 2000, 13(2-3): 125-153.

[7] Courault D, Seguin B, Olioso A. Review on estimation of evapotranspiration from remote sensing data: From empirical to numerical modeling approaches[J]. Irrigation and Drainage Systems, 2005, 19(3-4): 223-249.

[8] Kustas W P, Norman J M. Use of remote sensing for evapotranspiration monitoring over land surfaces[J]. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 1996, 41(4): 495-516.

[9] Allen R, Tasumi M, Morse A, et al. A Landsat-based energy balance and evapotranspiration model in Western US water rights regulation and planning[J]. Irrigation and Drainage Systems, 2005, 19(3): 251-268.

[10] Fisher J B, Tu K P, Baldocchi D D. Global estimates of the land-atmosphere water flux based on monthly AVHRR and ISLSCP-II data, validated at 16 FLUXNET sites[J]. Remote Sensing of Environment, 2008, 112(3): 901-919.

[11] 刘永强,叶笃正,季劲钧. 土壤湿度和植被对气候的影响——Ⅱ.短期气候异常持续性的数值试验[J]. 中国科学(B辑:化学 生命科学 地学), 1992(5): 554-560.

[12] 刘永强,叶笃正,季劲钧. 土壤湿度和植被对气候的影响——Ⅰ.短期气候异常持续性的理论分析[J]. 中国科学(B辑:化学 生命科学 地学), 1992(4): 441-448.

[13] Charusombat U, Niyogi D, Kumar A, et al. Evaluating a new deposition velocity module in the Noah land-surface model[J]. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 2010,137(2): 271-290.

[14] Ek M B, Mitchell K E, Lin Y, et al. Implementation of Noah land surface model advances in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction operational mesoscale Eta model[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 2003, 108(D22): 8851.

[15] Hogue T S, Bastidas L, Gupta H, et al. Evaluation and rransferability of the Noah land surface model in semiarid environments[J]. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2005, 6(1): 68-84.

[16] Lakshmi V, Hong S, Small E E, et al. The influence of the land surface on hydrometeorology and ecology: new advances from modeling and satellite remote sensing[J]. Hydrology Research, 2011, 42(2-3): 95-112.

[17] Rosero E, Gulden L E, Yang Z, et al. Ensemble evaluation of hydrologically enhanced Noah-LSM: Partitioning of the water balance in high-resolution simulations over the Little Washita River experimental watershed[J]. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2011, 12(1): 45-64.

[18] Sridhar V, Elliott R L, Chen F, et al. Validation of the NOAH-OSU land surface model using surface flux measurements in Oklahoma[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 2002, 107(D20): 4418.

[19] Sridhar V, Elliott R L, Chen F. Scaling effects on modeled surface energy-balance components using the NOAH-OSU land surface model[J]. Journal of Hydrology, 2003, 280(1-4): 105-123.

[20] Chen Y, Yang K, Zhou D, et al. Improving the Noah land surface model in arid regions with an appropriate parameterization of the thermal roughness length[J]. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2010, 11(4): 995-1006.

[21] Schaake J C, Koren V I, Duan Q, et al. Simple water balance model for estimating runoff at different spatial and temporal scales[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 1996, 101(D3): 7461-7475.

[22] 刘纪远,布和敖斯尔. 中国土地利用变化现代过程时空特征的研究——基于卫星遥感数据[J]. 第四纪研究, 2000, 20(3): 229-239.

[23] 刘纪远,刘明亮,庄大方,等. 中国近期土地利用变化的空间格局分析[J]. 中国科学(D辑:地球科学), 2002, 32(12): 1031-1043.

[24] 刘纪远, 张增祥, 庄大方. 中国土地利用变化的遥感时空信息研究[M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 2005.

[25] 马洁华,刘园, 杨晓光,等. 全球气候变化背景下华北平原气候资源变化趋势[J]. 生态学报, 2010, 30(14): 3818-3827.

[26] 李正泉,于贵瑞,温学发,等. 中国通量观测网络(ChinaFLUX)能量平衡闭合状况的评价[J]. 中国科学(D辑:地球科学), 2004, 34(SII): 46-56.

[27] Wilson K, Goldstein A, Falge E, et al. Energy balance closure at FLUXNET sites[J]. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2002, 113(1-4): 223-243.