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  • LU Feng, ZHU Yunqiang, ZHANG Xueying
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2023, 25(6): 1091-1105.

    The continuous generalization of geographic information poses a huge challenge to the classic geographic information analysis modes. Networked knowledge services will gradually become a new mode for geographic information applications, facilitating to transform the form of geographic computing into social computing. Geographic knowledge services need to connect people, institutions, natural environments, geographical entities, geographical units and social events, so as to promote knowledge assisted data intelligence and computational intelligence. Facing the urgent need for spatiotemporal knowledge acquisition, formal expression and analysis, this paper firstly introduces the concepts and characteristics of spatiotemporal knowledge graph. The spatiotemporal knowledge graph is a directed graph composed of geographic spatiotemporal distribution or geo-locational metaphors of knowledge that is a knowledge graph centered on spatiotemporal distribution characteristics. Secondly we proposes a research framework for spatiotemporal knowledge graph. The framework includes various levels from multimodal spatiotemporal big data to spatiotemporal knowledge services that contain ubiquitous spatiotemporal big data layer, spatiotemporal knowledge acquisition technique layer, spatiotemporal knowledge management layer, spatiotemporal knowledge graph layer, software/tools layer, and industrial application layer. Thirdly this paper introduces relevant research progress from text implied geographic information retrieval, heterogeneous geographic semantic web alignment, spatiotemporal knowledge formalization and representation learning. Combined with application practice, we then enumerate the construction and application approaches of domain oriented spatiotemporal knowledge graph. Finally, it discusses the key scientific issues and technical bottlenecks currently faced in the research of spatiotemporal knowledge graph. It is argued that in the era of large models, constructing explicit spatiotemporal knowledge graph and conducting knowledge reasoning to meet domain needs is still the only way for spatiotemporal knowledge services.

  • JIANG Bingchuan, HUANG Zihang, REN Yan, SUN Yong, FAN Aimin
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2023, 25(6): 1148-1163.

    The new combat style places new requirements for battlefield environment service support. The intelligent service of battlefield environment urgently needs to improve knowledge based on the global multidimensional battlefield environment data. In view of the knowledge modeling problem of intelligent cognition of battlefield environment, this paper puts forward the classification method of battlefield environment knowledge and considers the battlefield environment knowledge graph as a new form of battlefield environment knowledge representation under the context of big data and artificial intelligence. To solve the fragmentation problem of triplet knowledge representation, a temporal hypergraph representation model of battlefield environment is constructed, a multi-level unified graph model combining entity knowledge, event knowledge, influence process knowledge, and service decision-making knowledge is realized, and all kinds of knowledge are represented as a unified knowledge hypergraph network with spatiotemporal and scene characteristics. Finally, the experimental verification is carried out based on the data of map, event, impact process, and combat impact effectiveness. The hypergraph network realizes the correlation of various battlefield environment knowledge from the semantic level, which can provide support for the further realization of intelligent reasoning and service decision-making based on hypergraph.

  • LI Fadong, WANG Haiqi, KONG Haoran, LIU Feng, WANG Zhihai, WANG Qiong, XU Jianbo, SHAN Yufei, ZHOU Xiaoyu, YAN Feng
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2023, 25(6): 1106-1120.

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) is the basis of many researches in natural language processing. NER can be defined as a classification task. The aim of NER is to locate named entities from unstructured texts and classify them into different predefined categories. Compared with English, Chinese have the features of flexible formation and no exact boundaries. Because of the features of Chinese and the lack of high-quality Chinese named entity datasets, the recognition of Chinese named entities is more difficult than English named entities. Fine-grained entities are subdivisions of coarse-grained entities. The recognition of Chinese fine-grained named entities especially Chinese fine-grained geographic entities is even more difficult than that of Chinese named entities. It is a great hardship for Chinese geographic entity recognition to take both accuracy and recall rate into account. Therefore, improving the performance of Chinese fine-grained geographic entities recognition is quite necessary for us. In this paper we proposed two Chinese fine-grained geographic entity recognition models. These two models are based on joint lexical enhancement. Firstly, we injected the vocabulary into the experimental models. The vocabulary was considered as the 'knowledge' in the models. Then we explored the appropriate fine-grained named entity recognition method based on vocabulary enhancement. And we found two models, BERT-FLAT and LEBERT, that were suitable for fine-grained named entity recognition. Secondly, to further improve the performance of these two models in fine-grained geographical named entities recognition, we improved the above two models with lexical enhancement function in three aspects: pre-training model, adversarial training, and stochastic weight averaging. with these improvements, we developed two joint lexical enhancement models: RoBERTa-wwm-FLAT and LE-RoBERTta-wwm. Finally, we conducted an ablation experiment using these two joint lexical enhancement models. We explored the impacts of different improvement strategies on geographic entity recognition. The experiments based on the CLUENER dataset and one microblog dataset show that, firstly, compared with the models without lexical enhancement function, the models with lexical enhancement function have better performance on fine-grained named entities recognition, and the F1-score was improved by about 10%; Secondly, with the improvements of pre-training model, adversarial training, and stochastic weight averaging, the F1-score of the fine-grained geographic entity recognition task was improved by 0.36%~2.35%; Thirdly, compared with adversarial training and stochastic weight averaging, the pre-trained model had the greatest impact on the recognition accuracy of geographic entities.

  • YANG Fei, Li Xiang, CAO Yibing, ZHAO Xinke, WANG Lina, WU Ye
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2024, 26(3): 543-555.

    In recent years, with the continuous development and rapid iteration of emerging technologies such as mobile communication, big data, the Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), digital twins, and autonomous driving, new smart cities have become a significant frontier in the field of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications. Digital twin cities represent a complex integrated technological system that underpins the development of next-generation smart cities. Intelligent, holistic mapping for digital twin cities relies on comprehensive urban sensing, and the interactive control of urban sensing facilities plays a pivotal role in achieving the seamless integration of the physical and digital aspects of digital twin cities, fostering the convergence of entities within the urban environment. Describing spatiotemporal entities of the real world through a spatiotemporal data model, as well as modeling the behavioral capabilities of these entities using spatiotemporal object behavior, represents not only an innovative extension of GIS spatiotemporal data models but also addresses the practical requirements of triadic fusion and interactive analysis of human, machine, and object components with the development of digital twin city. As a crucial facet of urban infrastructure, urban sensing facilities epitomize distinctive spatiotemporal entities. Current research into the interactive control of these facilities is predominantly concentrated within the domains of the IoT, Virtual Reality/Augmented Reality (VR/AR), and GIS. However, these domains often lack research pertaining to interactive control of urban sensing facilities within the GIS-based digital realm. To tackle these issues, a viable approach involves mapping the direct physical control processes of humans over objects in the Internet of Things domain to the realm of GIS. Specifically, this involves using a GIS spatiotemporal data model to abstractly represent urban sensing facilities in the real world as spatiotemporal entities. These entities are then expressed as spatiotemporal objects within a spatial information system. Subsequently, the changes or actions of these facility spatiotemporal entities are uniformly abstracted as the behavioral capabilities of these spatiotemporal facility objects. Ultimately, the interaction control of these sensing facilities by humans is transformed into a process where humans invoke the behavioral capabilities of facility spatiotemporal objects, resulting in specific outcomes. Based on the aforementioned idea, this study employs a multi-granular spatiotemporal object data model to construct behavior capabilities for urban sensing facilities. Building upon this foundation, a spatiotemporal object behavior-driven approach for interactive control of urban sensing facilities with virtual-reality integration is introduced. By constructing a "quintuple" model for interactive control of facility objects, this approach facilitates users in engaging in interactive control through a reciprocal linkage between virtual scenarios and physical facilities. This mechanism effectively translates the process of urban sensing facility interaction control based on direct communication commands into the digital world, providing theoretical and technical support for the intelligent and interactive analytical applications of sensing facilities within digital twin cities. Experimental results substantiate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method for interactive control of urban sensing facilities.

  • ZHU Yunqiang, SUN Kai, HU Xiumian, LV Hairong, WANG Xinbing, YANG Jie, WANG Shu, LI Weirong, SONG Jia, SU Na, MU Xinglin
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2023, 25(6): 1215-1227.

    Geoscience Knowledge Graph (GKG) has strong capabilities of knowledge representation and semantic reasoning, thereby becoming a required infrastructure for the development of geoscience big data and geoscience artificial intelligence. However, existing studies on GKG were mainly conducted under the experimental scenarios. Because of a lack of research on the general framework of construction methods, sharing, and application of large-scale GKG for practical applications, it has not been used in practical applications in the geoscience field. For this reason, towards the needs of research and applications of geoscience big data and artificial intelligence for GKG, this paper first studied the construction techniques of large-scale GKG. Then, a general framework for covering the lifecycle of GKG including its construction, sharing, and application was proposed. Taking the big science program “Deep-Time Digital Earth (DDE)” as an example, the practice of developing GKG platform towards the practical application of DDE was carried out. Using this platform, this paper realized the construction of DDE large-scale GKG, the open sharing and application of built GKG, proving that the proposed framework can effectively support the construction, sharing, and application of large-scale GKG. This paper plays an important role in promoting the realization of the practical application value of GKG.

  • ZHANG Xueying, YE Peng, ZHANG Huifeng
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2023, 25(6): 1135-1147.

    Location description is the natural language expression of human spatial cognition. Since natural language is the primary and basic means of information transmission in human society, location description is an important medium for transmitting spatial location information in human communication. Spatial positioning based on spatial location description is the key to intelligent transformation of location-based services in the era of big data. To solve the problem that the vagueness of location description in different contexts is significantly different and results in difficulty in positioning, this paper proposes a representation method and reasoning mechanism for vague location description. Firstly, by combing the law of human spatial cognition, the types of elements concerned in the description of natural language are clarified. Based on the analysis of the sources of vagueness, a formal representation of vague location description is constructed. Different from the traditional spatial information modeling which focuses on spatial relationship, the formal representation proposed in this paper establishes the vagueness relation and influence among different information factors by the strategy of multi-factors representation. The formal representation also enhances the semantic analysis ability for the vagueness of location description. Secondly, based on supervaluation theory, the reasoning mechanism of vague location description is proposed from three aspects: spatial object, distance relation, and direction relation. Considering the context semantics of spatial location description, the threshold of observation value is used to carry out spatial reasoning. By being super-valued to different contexts, the reasoning results in different situations are obtained. The aim of the reasoning mechanism is to establish the mapping relationship between vague location description and real spatial location. Thirdly, a Question-Answering (Q&A) system is designed to collect contexts of location description, and a case study on the method is conducted. In the case study, a group of users' viewpoints from Q&A on spatial cognition are transformed into the spatial scope in the real world. These spatial scopes can establish the relationship between qualitative spatial concepts and quantitative spatial data, so as to realize the representation of vague location description in GIS. The results show that the proposed method in this paper can adjust the granularity of formal representation of location description in time according to actual application scenarios, and the spatial reasoning results fit intuitive cognition. In the future, knowledge graphs will be introduced to further improve the semantic reasoning ability and positioning accuracy for vague location description.

  • CAO Yi, BAI Hanwen, WANG Yixiao
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2024, 26(3): 556-566.

    This study aims to explore the complex spatiotemporal patterns of bicycle-sharing trips, reveal the influence of urban factors on the OD of bicycle-sharing trips, and improve the accuracy of OD prediction. Combining the theory of urban computing, urban factors such as the epidemic, months, weather conditions (minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and wind speed), and whether it is a weekday along with the length information of non-motorized lanes are selected to construct a bicycle-sharing demand prediction model (USTARN) that integrates urban computing and spatiotemporal attention residual network. USTARN first captures the spatiotemporal dependence of sharing bicycle flow through spatial area division and time series slicing, then combines the attention mechanism for deep residual learning, and finally adjusts the deep residual prediction results according to the urban factor prediction results to improve the model performance. Using the big data from bicycle orders and urban factor datasets in Shenzhen obtained from the government data open platform, this study visualizes the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of bicycle-sharing trips and analyzes their influencing factors using the Python development environment. The OD data set is divided into training set, verification set, and test set in a 7: 1:2 ratio, and the model training, model parameter adaptive adjustment, and model result comparison are carried out, respectively. The results show that the average error of the USTARN model for OD prediction of bike-sharing trips is 7.68%, which is 5.93%, 7.55%, and 6.07% lower than that of the STARN model without urban computing and the traditional CNN model, which is good at data feature extraction, and the BiLSTM model, which is good at dealing with bi-directional time-series data, respectively. The USTARN model fully reflects the influence of time, space, epidemic, weather, and other factors on the OD of bike-sharing trips. Our results have theoretical guiding significance for the accurate prediction of bike-sharing trip OD, which can provide a scientific basis for urban non-motorized roadway planning and have practical application value for the promotion of bike-sharing travel mode and solving the 'last mile' problem of residents travel.

  • LUO Qiuyu, YUE Yang, GU Yanyan
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2023, 25(6): 1164-1175.

    Knowledge graphs are an important data infrastructure in AI technologies and applications, and have become a hot research topic in geosciences. The size and topological features in geographic knowledge graphs are usually different from universal knowledge graphs, which are not typical small-world networks. However, existing studies often use the default network search depth when learning geographic knowledge graph representations, and its rationality needs further demonstration. For this purpose, this paper constructs a metro travel knowledge graph based on the topological structure features of metro line network, combined with passenger flow data, POI (Point of Interest) data and built environment data, etc.; then GraphSAGE model is used to learn node multidimensional feature embedding and combine POI data for semantic recognition of station classification results to verify the suitable network search depth for metro travel knowledge graph. The results showed that, compared to the default 2 layers search depth, the node embedding features of this metro travel knowledge graph work optimally when the search depth is 3 layers. This study shows that the hyperparameter selection of the geographic knowledge graph representation is supposed to take into account the geographic features, and it is important to avoid the use of results from fields such as computer science that have not been distinguished. When the search depth is 3 layers, the metro station classification results are also more reasonable and explanatory, which can provide a basis for station planning and passenger flow prediction using knowledge graph and AI methods.

  • HUANG Zongcai, LU Feng, QIU Peiyuan, PENG Peng
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2023, 25(6): 1121-1134.

    Web texts are an important data source for constructing and completing a large-scale knowledge graph that contains a great deal of ubiquitous geographic information. However, the extensive sources, casual expression, and dynamic nature of web texts, as well as the varied quality of implicit geo-information bring great challenges such as multi-level evaluation objects, unclear quality dimensions, diversified evaluation indicators, difficult access to deep-seated indicators, and diversified evaluation methods in the process of geographic information quality assessment. Therefore, a Quality Assessment Framework for implicit Geographic Information from Web Texts (QAF-GIWT) is proposed in this study. The QAF-GIWT is oriented to the process of acquiring geographic information from web texts and defines three levels of quality evaluation objects, i.e., data source level, data item level, and dataset level. The data source level contains websites and web pages, the data item level includes the triplet-formed information extracted from the webpage, and the dataset level is the information aggregated into a Geographic Knowledge Graph (GeoKG). The QAF-GIWT defines four quality dimensions including relevance, novelty, reliability, and integrity, and proposes the corresponding quantitative evaluation indicators for different level evaluation objects including Cell Geographic Semantic Ratio (CGSR), Geographic Semantic Ratio (GSR), Average Geographic Information Ratio (AGIR), Geographic Information Ratio(GIR), Event Time Length, Triplet Existence, Publish Time, Time Validation, Domain Name Time Length, Update Frequency, Average Freshness, Comprehensive Ranking, Category Ranking, Daily Page Visit, Daily User Visit, User Attention, Picture Number, Word Number, Geographic Entities Ratio (GER), Window's Geo-Information Ratio (GIWR), Triplet Missing Rate, Event Information Missing Rate, Relation Missing Rate, Attribute Missing Rate, Location Missing Rate, Relation Redundancy, Attribute Redundancy, etc. It systematically summarizes the characteristics and applicability of the indicator calculation, indicator synthesis, and quality prediction methods involved in the quality evaluation process. Among them, with the help of natural language processing technology and corresponding quality indicator calculation methods, quality indicators are newly constructed from the deep mining of the web texts including CGSR, GSR, AVGIR, GIR, GIWR, GER, etc. In our experiment, the QAF-GIWT framework was designed to adapt to the characteristics of various types of websites e.g., Mafengwo. Aiming at the comprehensive evaluation of multi-level quality indicators, the analytic hierarchy process was used for comprehensive reliability evaluation. Our experiment verified the effectiveness of the QAF-GIWT framework. The QAF-GIWT provides a systematic scheme including quality dimensions, quality indicators, and quality assessment methods for the quality evaluation of geographic information extracted from massive, heterogeneous, and dynamic web texts. The proposed QAF-GIWT can assist in the screening of data sources and filtering of acquired information, greatly reducing the complexity of information acquisition and the redundancy of data storage, and assisting the quality control process of the acquisition of geographic information from web texts.

  • WANG Shoufen, WANG Shouxia, GU Jianxiang
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2024, 26(3): 567-590.

    The geographically and temporally weighted regression method based on weighted least squares estimation achieves optimal estimates under the assumption of Gauss-Markov independent identical distributions. However, these conditions cannot be always satisfied. If there are outliers or heavy-tailed distributions in the data, the least squares estimates may be significantly biased. On the other hand, quantile regression is less affected by outliers and is more robust than least squares regression, which can be applied in a broader range of applications under more relaxed conditions. More importantly, the least squares regression model only focuses on the mean of the response, while quantile regression explores the global distribution of the response variable (e.g., quantiles of the response variable) and can obtain richer information. In this paper, we propose the geographically and temporally weighted quantile regression model based on the local polynomial estimation. This model allows for different optimal bandwidths for different explanatory variables and use a two-step estimation method to obtain the estimates of the coefficients. To illustrate the superiority of the proposed method, we compare the proposed method with the geographically and temporally weighted least squares regression through numerical simulations. The simulation results show that the mean square error and the mean absolute error of the coefficient estimates for the proposed quantile regression model are both smaller than those of the least squares regression model. For example, at the 0.75 quantile, the mean square error and mean absolute error of the coefficient estimates based on the least squares regression are 10 times and 4 times those based on the quantile regression, respectively. This indicates that our proposed method is robust and can explore the global distribution of the response variable compared to the least squares regression model. Finally, to illustrate the practical ability of the method, we apply it to the data of Shanghai's commercial residential neighborhoods from 2017 to 2021 to investigate the effects of different factors on residential prices at different quantiles (e.g., high house prices, medium house prices, and low house prices). The results show that the explanatory variables have different effects on house prices at different quantiles. The spatial and temporal distributions of the coefficients of the variables differ significantly among high house prices, medium house prices, and low house prices, and the optimal bandwidths for different explanatory variables also differ. Compared to the MGTWR based on least squares regression, the quantile regression model proposed in this paper is more robust with the presence of outliers. After removing 1% of extreme values, the change in the mean absolute error of the fitting based on the quantile regression model is 1% smaller than that based on the least squares regression model. Additionally, the quantile regression model can explore the factors affecting the different price levels of the housing such as the high house prices, medium house prices, and low house prices.

  • HUANG Hao, WANG Junchao, WANG Chengfang, XIE Yuanyi, ZHANG Wenchu
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2023, 25(12): 2303-2314.

    The assurance of a consistent supply of daily necessities in megacities is pivotal in fortifying community supply resilience. It is axiomatic that a community system is not an insular entity; rather, it intricately intertwines with various elements of urban systems. As a foundational unit of urban governance, the urban community is instrumental in facilitating a congruent nexus between supply and demand, thereby augmenting urban resilience. This study proposes an exploratory evaluation method for the urban community supply support and resilience based on complex network theory, attempting to achieve a breakthrough in the underlying theoretical framework of resilience assessment from "single system assessment" to "multi-system correlation assessment". Taking the six districts in the central city of Guangzhou as an example, we build a supply-demand network based on citizens' spatio-temporal behaviors using multi-source data such as mobile phone signaling data and other data. The attacking strategies of network are based on five community resilience indicators. Besides, the cascade failure mechanism is introduced to evaluate the network resilience, and the entropy-weighted method is employed to obtain resilience evaluation results. The influence mechanism of community resilience on the supply system is further analyzed by studying the factors affecting community node failure at different stages of supply network. The findings are as follows: (1) The proposed evaluation model of the community supply support and resilience can effectively simulate urban community supply-demand networks and evaluate the resilience of communities. Low-resilience communities are mainly categorized into three spatial types: old blocks, urban villages, and suburban blocks; (2) Through the analysis of network resilience under five different attack strategies, it is found that the dominant influencing factors are different, with the population density being the primary factor; (3) There exists a complex bidirectional relationship between community resilience and supply security, including the obvious vulnerability of low-resilience communities. And the community self-organization ability, the supply facility layout, and the linkage scheduling between supply points all affect the overall community resilience.

  • TAN Songlin, WANG Jie, JI Jingjing, LIU Meili, ZHAN Zhongyu, LIU Miao, WANG Lirong, HU Xiaodong
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2024, 26(3): 591-603.

    Triple Collocation (TC) is a technique for assessing the uncertainties of three samples individually without knowledge of the true values. This method is based on the assumptions of linearity, orthogonality, and zero cross-correlation. In practical use, these three assumptions are often difficult to achieve, particularly the orthogonality and zero cross-correlation assumptions, which often encounter significant violations. Moreover, we are uncertain about the impact of these assumption violations on the errors of the method's results. In this study, we simulated multiple sets of synthetic samples with varying degrees of two assumption violations to investigate the impact of assumption violations on the accuracy of the TC method. The results of synthetic samples experiment indicate that, in general, when there is an increase in the violation of orthogonality or zero cross-correlation assumptions, the error of the method's results increases linearly or quadratically. However, under certain specific conditions of assumption violation, there is a sudden and spike-like increase in the error of TC method results. This phenomenon is referred to as "outliers". To understand the origin of the outliers, we derived the complete mathematical relationship between the violation of assumptions and the errors of the results. This relationship exhibits a fractional structure rather than a linear one, contributing to the emergence of outliers. From the perspective of the difference notation, this fractional structure results from rescaling coefficients. Continuing to analyze this mathematical relationship, we can draw two conclusions. Firstly, merely ensuring the approximate independence of the three samples does not necessarily lead to improved method results. When the structural relationships among the three samples meet certain conditions, outliers emerge. Additionally, previous attempts at method improvement have aimed at overall reducing the sensitivity of this method to assumptions, neglecting the presence of outliers. Considering these factors, the key to suppressing outliers lies in better designing these rescaling coefficients. The paper presents two possible improvement methods:(1) Ignoring the additive bias, so that the rescaling coefficients are not affected by the orthogonality or zero cross-correlation assumptions. (2) Limiting the upper and lower bounds of the rescaling coefficients. We achieved favorable results in suppressing outliers by constraining the absolute values of the rescaling coefficients between 0.25 and 4. Both improvement methods can suppress the occurrence of outliers. However, when the additive bias is significant, the first improvement method generates substantial extreme errors due to its inherent structure, which is insufficient to eliminate outliers. The second method performs effectively even in complex scenarios. Lastly, we conducted a simple estimation of the probability of outliers occurring in practical usage, which was approximately 3.2%. In addition, we used SMOS, SMAP, and AMSR2 soil moisture data to validate the phenomenon of outliers and compared the two improved methods. According to real data, some outliers appear as negative values and are removed because the calculated results cannot be negative. Therefore, A portion of the outlier does not cause a significant deviation in the calculation result; instead, they simply prevent the calculation of meaningful results. Therefore, when employing the TC method with fewer repetitions for calculations (e.g., with fewer than 500 repetitions), the influence of outliers can be disregarded.

  • JIANG Yiyi, GAO Jie, GUO Jiaming, XU Haibin
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2024, 26(2): 242-258.

    The way we capture and analyze human activity and behavior is changing because of big data. A variety of new data sources have emerged to supplement the official data, offering a significant amount of data with potential application value for the research of tourism and leisure while overcoming the common problem of insufficient data in traditional tourism research. Based on the research frontier of big geodata, this paper explains the theoretical foundation of tourism under the background of geographic multi-source big data at three levels: human tourism activities, tourism geographical environments and destinations, and the relationship between tourists and tourist destinations. Secondly, this paper summarizes the application of big geodata, such as human tourism activity data (e.g., UGC data, device data, transaction data) and tourism geographical environment data (e.g., POI, environmental data). Finally, this paper discusses the challenges and prospects of big geodata in three aspects: research paradigm and theory, multi-source data fusion, and analysis methods. For the research paradigm and theory, there is the requirement for standardize and systematize the scientific research paradigm by combining different events and scenarios to create an interpretation system of Chinese tourism geography based on "process-structure-mechanism". In terms of multi-source data fusion, the combination of big data and other data is necessary. In terms of analysis methods, efforts are still needed to improve the adaptability of analysis methods and incorporate the specific variables of tourism phenomena.

  • ZHENG Yunhao, ZHANG Yi, MOU Naixia, JIANG Qi, LIU Yu
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2024, 26(2): 259-273.

    Network science provides abstract models for analyzing complex phenomena in the real world. With the support of network science theories and methods, researchers are able to explore the dynamic relationship between research objects in tourism domains from a more systematic perspective. This unique viewpoint is of great significance for further understanding the operation rules of tourism and promoting the balanced and sustainable development of related industries. With the digitalization of tourism, tourism information has become more flexible and scalable, which has significantly increased the applicability of network science theories and methods in tourism domains. Against this background, research on the applications of network science theories and methods in tourism domains has received extensive attention in recent years. In view of this, this paper systematically reviews the published articles related to the applications of network science theories and methods in tourism domains and summarizes the main research contents through a multi-scale perspective. Specifically, this paper first outlines the backgrounds of related theoretical foundations and application scenarios. The most common types of tourism networks, including interpersonal networks, tourist flow networks, economic networks, etc., are summarized through a "node-edge" structure. Important concepts and terms in network science, especially the differences and relations between complex networks and social networks as two "research paradigms", are also highlighted. Following that, this paper summarizes the progress of the applications of network science theories and methods in tourism domains at different scales of observation (i.e., microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic). Among these scales, the microscopic scale focuses on the interactive properties of tourism actors, the mesoscopic scale is often used to describe the aggregation phenomena of tourism actors, and the macroscopic scale focuses on the global topological structural features of the tourism actor networks in tourism domains. Common methods or measures in network science, such as centrality, structural holes, community/cohesive subgroups, core-periphery structure, small worlds, and scale-free effect are also introduced. Based on the review of the research progress, this paper identifies the research problems in current research, including reliability deficiencies in the research data, negligence of multi-scale phenomena, interpretability challenges in the research results, and lack of highlighting theoretical contributions in tourism domains. The aim of this paper is to review the research literature on applications of network science theories and methods in tourism domains from the perspective of research practice, in order to effectively present the substance and compatibility of research at the intersection of network science and tourism.

  • CHEN Huixuan, GUO Danhuai, GE Shiyin, WANG Jing, WANG Yangang, CHEN Feng, YANG Weishi
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2023, 25(6): 1176-1185.

    Natural language is an effective tool for humans to describe things, with diversity and ease of dissemination, and can contain human spatial cognitive results. How to use natural language to describe geographic spatial scenes has always been an important research direction in spatial cognition and geographic information science, providing important application values in personalized unmanned tour guides, blind navigation, virtual space scene interpretation, and so on. The essence of natural language description of geographic spatial scenes is the process of transforming the two-dimensional vector of geographic space into a one-dimensional vector in word space. Traditional models perform well in handling spatial relationships, but are somewhat inadequate in natural language description: (1) spatial relationship description models are one-way descriptions of the environment by humans, without considering the impact of the environment on the description; (2) spatial scenes emphasize traversal-based descriptions of spatial relationships, where each set of spatial relationships is equally weighted, which is inconsistent with the varying attention paid by humans to geographic entities and spatial relationships in the environment; (3) the spatial relationship calculation of traditional models is a static description of a single scene, which is difficult to meet the requirement of dynamic description of continuous scenes in practical applications; (4) the natural language style of traditional models is mechanical, lacking necessary knowledge support. This article proposes a spatial scene natural language generation framework Map2Text (M2T) that integrates multiple knowledge graphs. The framework establishes knowledge graphs for spatial relationships, language generation style, and spatial attention, respectively, and realizes the fusion of multiple knowledge graphs and the generation of natural language descriptions of spatial scenes within a unified framework. The spatial scene description knowledge graph solves the pruning problem of traversing spatial relationships, and establishes the relationship between spatial scenes by building a spatial relationship graph, supporting continuous expression of spatial scenes; the natural language style knowledge graph establishes the relationship between spatial expression and language style, achieving diversified language styles that are appropriate for spatial natural language expression; the spatial attention knowledge graph captures the nuances of natural language spatial expression by establishing an attention matrix based on the interaction state between the subject and object of the spatial scene. An experimental prototype system designed based on the Beijing Forbidden City demonstrates that the system-generated results are close to human travel notes, with more complete content coverage and more diverse styles, verifying the effectiveness of the M2T framework and demonstrating the potential value of natural language description of spatial scenes.

  • JIANG Yiyi, DENG Ning, GAO Bingbo, LI Yuan, LI Yunpeng, LIU Yi, LIU Zhenhuan, MOU Naixia, PENG Peng, TANG Chengcai, ZHANG Honglei, ZHANG Xiang, XU Haibin
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2024, 26(2): 227-241.

    Tourism and leisure have become important aspects of modern life, enhancing the quality of life through recreational activities. However, the development of tourism and leisure is characterized by imbalances and deficiencies that need immediate attention. Geo-information Science provides a spatial analytical framework and methods for studying tourism and leisure. Additionally, the rapid advancement of big data technology has facilitated the widespread application and interest in Geo-information Science in the field of tourism and leisure. This article aims to critically review the current state of research, disciplinary contributions, limitations, and future directions of Geo-Information Science in the field of tourism and leisure. To achieve this objective, we conducted interviews with representative scholars from various fields such as tourism management, Geo-information Science, and geography to gather their insights. Through interviews with twelve experts, we found that one of the major contributions of Geo-information Science to tourism and leisure research is the integration of spatial thinking, including the spatial and temporal dimensions. On one hand, by emphasizing the importance of space, Geo-information Science allows for a deeper understanding of how the geographical environment influences tourist behavior and decision-making processes. Analytical techniques such as spatial analysis, geographic visualization, and spatial modeling offer technical opportunities for valuable insights into various aspects of tourism, including the spatial behavior of tourists, distribution patterns, and the utilization of tourism resources. On the other hand, the use of Geo-information Science rooted in spatiotemporal cognitive logic helps in understanding the generation and evolution of tourism patterns. This approach can analyze changes and impacts of tourism processes at different time and spatial scales, revealing underlying behavioral mechanisms, spatial-temporal distribution patterns of tourist attractions, and temporal trends in the tourism market. However, challenges remain in interpreting research findings, integrating data from multiple sources, and promoting interdisciplinary exchanges. Addressing these challenges requires further exploration and research from scholars. Nonetheless, it is important to recognize the tremendous potential of Geo-information Science in future applications in the field of tourism and leisure. In the era of Artificial Intelligence 2.0, the integration and breakthroughs in combining 3D GIS with human sensory devices, enhancing decision-making abilities through spatiotemporal modeling technologies, the integration of AIGC with Geo-information Science technologies, and the automatic generation of multidimensional virtual spaces all hold exciting prospects. This study aims to provide guidance for the fusion of Geo-information Science with tourism and leisure research and anticipate future directions in this field. By addressing current limitations and exploring future directions, researchers can further enhance our understanding of these fields and contribute to their sustainable development.

  • GU Jinyuan, YANG Dongfeng
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2024, 26(2): 332-351.

    The mobile communication technology and social media has been deeply embedded into people's daily life, affecting people's choices of leisure activities. However, there is still limited understanding of the spatial regularity characteristics of its impact, particularly due to the lack of empirical analysis utilizing specific quantitative indicators. Given that the layout of leisure spaces is closely linked to social equity, it is essential to obtain a better understanding of the emerging spatial patterns in order to improve residents' well-being. To address this gap, leisure check-ins on Xiaohongshu (a Chinese social media platform) and leisure Points of Interest (POI) in Dalian are used to measure the characteristics of these two types of leisure spaces in two dimensions: concentration and clustering, and at two scales: the main urban area and subdistricts. Various spatial analysis methods, including kernel density estimation, head/tail breaks, hot spot analysis (Getis-Ord Gi*), and DBSCAN (Density-Based Clustering), are employed to analyze the data. The findings are that: (1) Leisure check-ins are mostly located in the urban central area, with a smaller distribution range and fewer hotspot cores; (2) At both the main urban area and subdistricts scales, the distribution of leisure check-ins exhibits lower concentration and clustering, with obvious "decentralized dispersion" characteristics. However, the degree of significance of these features varies across different subdistricts; (3) The majority hotspots of leisure check-ins are located in traditional hotspots, with a few emerging in expansion of urban central area or regions with unique features, such as historic urban landscape district and marina space; (4) The distribution patterns of leisure check-ins can be grouped into four types based on differences in subdistricts' concentration and clustering ratio: "original center cluster type", "original center scattered type", "new center scattered type", and "no center scattered type". The subdistricts with these different distribution patterns exhibit differences in functionality, location, and other characteristics. This study analyses the behavioral processes of leisure activities under the influence of social media through the lens of Actor-Network-Theory. Based on the fundamental principles of temporal geography and differences between "space of places" and "space of flows", it is argued that social media engenders a novel "local order" of leisure pursuits, marked by a desire for spatial exploration. This new order reflects the impact of "space of flows" based on virtual connections on "space of places" based on physical presence, which strengthens the role of node attractors, reduces the constraints of accessibility at micro scales, and increases the flexibility of location.

  • HUANG Qin, TAN Cui, YANG Bo
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2024, 26(2): 303-317.

    In recent years, with the improvement of public awareness of environmental protection, the pursuit of harmonious coexistence between man and nature of ecotourism has attracted more and more people's attention. In the face of rich and diverse ecotourism resources and the contradiction between supply and demand of domestic ecotourism, how to orderly develop and make rational use of resources under the premise of maximum protection, and transform "lucid waters and lush mountains" into "gold and silver mountains" scientifically and rationally is a major issue to be addressed at present. Taking Shennongjia Forestry District as an example, based on multi-source geospatial data, we use the XGBoost algorithm to evaluate its ecotourism suitability. The following conclusions are drawn: (1) The ecotourism suitability evaluation model based on XGBoost algorithm integrates machine learning technology and achieves good classification results with the idea of ​​data mining. The overall classification accuracy of the model under 10-fold cross-validation is 89.44%, with a high recall rate (89.68%). The F1 score is 0.8745, based on both the precision and recall. The AUC value of the model is 0.9593, and the overall classification performance of the model is excellent; (2) According to the ranking results of feature importance, the NDVI of ecological environment elements (26.86%), annual average temperature (11.61%), and distance from social and economic factors to the road (8.90%) has the highest contribution to the model; (3) The classification results of ecotourism suitability show that the overall ecotourism resources in Shennongjia Forestry District are rich. Highly suitable areas, moderately suitable areas, marginally suitable areas, and unsuitable areas account for 44.13%, 15.93%, 11.89%, and 28.05% of the total forest area, respectively. The research method of this paper breaks through the limitations of traditional ecotourism suitability assessment methods which are highly subjective, and solves practical problems based on data mining ideas and machine learning technology.

  • TAN Cui, HUANG Qin, YANG Bo, LI Tao, LEI Jihua
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2024, 26(2): 318-331.

    The ecotourism suitability assessment is the basis and a crucial reference for evaluating development potential, formulating plans, and implementing exploitation in ecotourism. In this study, we first analyze the feasibility of machine learning methods for modeling ecotourism suitability, and the Random Forest (RF) algorithm is selected for conducting an empirical study in the Wuling Mountain area in Hunan Province. In the study area, there are abundant tourism resources with an urgent need for ecotourism development, which can not only consolidate and expand the achievements of poverty alleviation, but also effectively connect with rural revitalization, thereby promoting sustainable development of tourism. The results show that: (1) Machine learning, as a new regional ecotourism suitability assessment approach, provides new insights and solutions for further improvement of suitability assessment; (2) The RF algorithm as a typical machine learning method can be effectively applied in the regional ecotourism suitability assessment. The optimized RF model achieves an average testing accuracy of 86.49%, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.95. These results also indicate the ecotourism suitability of the Wuling Mountain area in Hunan Province; (3) The ranking of feature importance reveals that land use type contributes most to the model, accounting for 28.98%, followed by other significant factors including population density (16.34%), distance from scenic spots (12.2%), and biological richness (10.65%). The above factors should be all considered in ecotourism development efforts; (4) The ecotourism suitability results show a high proportion of highly and moderately suitable areas, suggesting significant potential for ecotourism development in the study area. Based on the ecotourism suitability assessment, different development directions are proposed: A protective pattern and experiential education-oriented ecotourism are well-suited in highly suitable areas; a joint pattern and supportive ecotourism are appropriate for moderately suitable areas; a restrictive pattern is recommended for marginally suitable areas; and for unsuitable areas, the development should be prohibited. Finally, we present a new development strategy known as "two centers, one belt, and one plate," providing theoretical and technical guidance for ecotourism development and the consolidation of poverty alleviation achievements in the Wuling Mountain area of Hunan Province.

  • LI Yuan, LIANG Jiaqi, ZHAO Long, DU Ya'nan, YANG Mengsheng, ZHANG Na
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2024, 26(2): 274-302.

    In the context of culture-tourism integration, digital China, and activated utilization of heritage, heritage tourism has become a hot topic in academia and industry. The mismatch between spatial representation of heritage value and tourists' spatial perception is one of the most prominent contradictions in current heritage tourism. From the perspective of heritage value, this paper combines bibliometric analysis and systematic review to discuss relevant research from four aspects: interpretation and quantification of heritage value, spatial calculation and representation of heritage value, tourists' perception of heritage value and space, and tourists' spatial behavior in heritage site. Besides, comparisons between Chinese and foreign literature of these four themes are conducted to figure out the similarity and difference. The main findings are as follows: (1) there are abundant achievements in the interpretation of heritage value, which mainly focus on the connotation and interpretation technology of heritage value, but lack of quantitative methods; (2) the spatial calculation and representation of heritage value is object-oriented and application-oriented, and the geographic information system and spatial information technology are commonly used methods; (3) studies on tourists’ perception of heritage value and space are mostly from the perspective of tourism destinations of heritage sites but ignore the heritage value and spatial attributes, lacking the exploration of relationship between heritage value, heritage space, and tourists. The measurement dimension of sensory perception is mainly visual; (4) the research on tourist behavior in heritage site mainly focuses on the characteristics, patterns, causes, and influencing factors of behavior. It emphasizes the importance of practical application and reflects the orientation of heritage responsibility; (5) the spatial calculation and representation of heritage value, as well as tourists' perception of heritage value and space, are still lack of concern in the context of natural heritage and mixed heritage; (6) there are similarities and differences in the research objects, methods, and contents of Chinese and foreign literatures; (7) in the future, the interpretation and representation of heritage value will transition from traditional narrative to spatial quantification, and the perception and calculation of heritage space will shift from spatial footprint to perceptual behavior. Based on above findings, this paper puts forward a theoretical framework and methodological path from multidisciplinary perspective for tourists' spatial perception and calculation of heritage value, in order to promote the interdisciplinary theory and technology integration of heritage research. In conclusion, this paper provides theoretical references for related research and practical references for heritage protection, heritage site management, tourism development, and heritage value inheritance.

  • ZHANG Lei, DOU Wangsheng, QIN Bo
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2024, 26(2): 381-392.

    The distribution characteristics, accessibility, fairness, and other spatial configuration of urban public sports facilities are directly related to the equality of basic public services and the integrity of urban spatial structure. Taking Beijing as an example, this paper uses POI data to characterize urban public sports facilities, and uses kernel density estimation, nearest neighbor index, improved two-step mobile search method, and coverage index analysis methods to study the spatial agglomeration characteristics of urban public sports facilities at the street scale in Beijing, as well as the accessibility and fairness from the perspective of supply and demand. The results show that: (1) The improved two-step mobile search method considers the supply scale of public sports facilities at different levels of cities and the travel distance of residents under the concept of "15-min life circle", which is suitable for the accessibility analysis of block level and community level sports facilities. The spatial accessibility of block level and community level facilities in central urban areas is higher; (2) There is a significant spatial agglomeration trend of public sports facilities at all levels in Beijing. The block-level facilities show a trend of "point-like agglomeration and area-like dispersion", and the district-level facilities show a "core-edge" pattern, with more facilities in the central city and less in the surrounding areas. Community-level facilities are in the mode of "small agglomeration and large dispersion", with a uniform spatial distribution; (3) There are many streets with high coverage of public sports facilities at the community level in Beijing, and the spatial allocation is well balanced. There are few streets with high coverage index of public sports facilities at the block level, and the coverage is relatively limited. The results can provide reference for the planning and optimization of public sports facilities in Beijing.

  • JIANG Dong, GAO Chundong, GUO Qiquan, CHEN Shuai, HAO Mengmeng
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2023, 25(10): 1923-1932.

    With the development of science and technology, cyberspace has been deeply integrated with people's daily lives and represents a new spatial form of human activities. The cyberspace correlates to the real world, but on the other hand it also differs from it. Cyberspace has distinct geographical characteristics, and the spatial-temporal relationship in geograph remains an indispensable element in cyberspace. Therefore, it is of great significance to apply geographical thinking to the cognition of cyberspace in order to describe the situation of cyberspace and maintain cybersecurity. In this paper, we review the emergence and development of cyberspace, analyze the basic structure and characteristics of cyberspace, and examine the geographical properties of cyberspace based on different views of cyberspace. From the perspective of the three laws of geography, this paper discusses how to use geographical thinking and Geographic Information Science (GIS) methods to describe cyberspace, and takes the visualization of cyberspace, the construction of geographic knowledge graph of cyberspace, and the intelligent analysis of cyberspace behavior as examples to illustrate how to apply geographical thinking to the analysis and research of cyberspace. Exploring the geographical properties of cyberspace and applying geographical techniques to cyberspace protection can provide new insights into the comprehensive governance of cybersecurity, thus improving the cognitive level and governance capabilities of cyberspace in the new era.

  • HUANG Gaoshuang, ZHOU Yang, HU Xiaofei, ZHAO Luying, ZHANG Chenglong
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2023, 25(7): 1336-1362.

    Image geo-localization is a technique that obtains the geographic location information of an image through a series of methods, so as to establish a mapping relationship with the real geographic space. This technique is important for further image information mining and has potential application value in cyberspace surveying and mapping, intelligence acquisition, user outdoor positioning, and augmented reality. Despite the tremendous progress in the field of computer vision, high-precision automatic geo-localization of images still needs to be addressed due to the involvement of multiple fields such as image feature extraction, large-scale data retrieval, large-scale point cloud processing, deep learning, geographic information feature extraction, geometric modeling and reasoning, semantic scene understanding, context-based reasoning, and multiple data fusion. This paper reviews the progress of image geo-localization research, mainly including image geo-localization methods, image geo-localization datasets, image geo-localization evaluation methods, and summary and prospect of image geo-localization. Firstly, image geolocation methods are classified into three categories, i.e., image retrieval, 2D-3D matching, and cross-modal retrieval, according to the relevance of the research content. Secondly, the datasets and evaluation methods used for image geo-localization research are categorized and summarized. The geo-localization datasets include image datasets, cross-view datasets, Structure from Motion (SfM) datasets, and multimodal datasets, etc. The image geo-localization evaluation metrics include Top-k candidates, localization error, position and orientation error per video frame, and accuracy/recall. Finally, the current status of image geo-localization research is analyzed, and the future research directions of image geo-localization are outlined in terms of global geo-localization, natural area geo-localization, multi-method fusion for geo-localization, Point of Interest (POI) data-based geo-localization, and pre-selected location refinement.

  • GAO Hanxin, CHEN Bo, SUN Hongquan, TIAN Yugang
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2023, 25(10): 1933-1953.

    Being able to penetrate clouds and fog, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery has been widely used in flood mapping and flood detection regardless of time and weather condition. Improving the accuracy of flood maps retrieved from SAR images is of both scientific and practical significance. However, errors in SAR-derived flood maps can come from SAR image measuring principles, image acquisition and pre-processing system, water detection algorithms, and the remarkable temporal dynamics of the flooding process. The aim of this paper is to provide an extensive literature review of flood detection using SAR images (about 108 peer reviewed journal papers), including SAR data sources, flood detection methods, application of auxiliary information, accuracy evaluation, and challenges and opportunities for future research. Based on the articles reporting flood detection methods, it is found that the threshold segmentation methods such as the OTSU and KI algorithms are computationally fast and have been most widely used. The classification methods (e.g., the support vector machine and K-means clustering algorithms) have the flexibility to account for both subjectivity and objectivity, and the change detection method using the difference and ratio algorithms can effectively suppress over-detection and image geometric errors. Additionally, combining SAR images with four major types of auxiliary data to increase flood detection accuracy has become a hot topic in the past decades. Specifically, terrain information such as Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND), and topographic slope can effectively reduce the impacts of shadows and exclude non-flooded areas. SAR image textural and multispectral optical information (e.g., Landsat data and aerial photos) can enhance the recognition ability of water features. Land cover/use data facilitate removing non-water features that are similar to water features, and hydrological data can help excluding permanent water bodies from temporary flood areas. From the perspectives of SAR image types, image preprocessing, detection algorithms, and accuracy assessment, major challenges are further discussed including insufficient understanding of the complexity of SAR backscattering information, limited progress in improving the signal-to-noise ratio during image pre-processing, lack of versatile flood detection algorithms, and low availability of high-quality verification data. While opportunities for future SAR-based flood detection research include combination of auxiliary information in detection algorithms, use of multiple rather than single threshold for water detection, and transition from deterministic toward probabilistic flood mapping.

  • HUANG Jingxiong, LIANG Jiaqi, YANG Mengsheng, LI Yuan
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2024, 26(2): 352-366.

    Street space is the main space that affects tourists' experience of tourism sites. The visual quality of street space is crucial to the development of tourism. However, the evaluation method of visual quality needs further exploration. This paper selected Gulangyu, the famous tourism site in Xiamen, as a study case. First, we established a quantitative model of visual quality combining the existing research on street space and the visual elements of tourism sites. Then, we collected street view data of each intersection by traveling like tourists, corrected imaging parameters, and encoded the street view images. Second, based on the deep learning method (Fully Convolutional Networks, FCN), we segmented the collected street view images semantically and extracted the visual elements in street view data. Finally, by combining with GIS, we set up a geographic information database to analyze the visual and spatial characteristics of each sampling point's visual elements. This database was aimed at providing a basis for further evaluation of the visual quality of street space. It was aggregated using the street line as the smallest unit. In our study, we calculated the visual quality indicators to evaluate the street space in Gulangyu. The results show that: (1) There is obvious spatial differentiation in the visual elements of street space in Gulangyu; (2) Building density, street width, and vegetation sketches are the basic visual elements that shape the visual quality of street space; (3) The distribution of botanical parks, major docks, and commercial facilities significantly impacts the street space's visual quality. In detail, green plants, buildings, roads, sky, and street facilities show the differences between a center and a roundabout. While the distribution of pedestrians shows differences between the east and the west. The green view rate, enclosure, sky openness, and diversity of street space also have obvious center-roundabout spatial differentiation. Moreover, there is an obvious spatial agglomeration effect in the green view rate, crowding degree, and diversity of street space. The agglomeration points are mainly parks, docks, and commercial streets. The method in this paper provides a new collection method in street visual quality evaluation. The visual element extraction accuracy based on FCN is fairly high, which can provide a reference for street view images and other types of image data analysis. This paper provides a valuable reference for street space management and planning, resource integration and allocation, human flow guidance, and regulation in tourism sites.

  • WU Qiong, LI Zhigang, WU Min
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2023, 25(12): 2439-2455.

    Under the background of high-density urban areas and aging population in China, it is not only necessary but also urgent to strengthen the research on the design and construction of urban pocket parks. This paper uses CiteSpace, literature review, technical analysis and some other methods to conduct cluster analysis and comprehensive literature analysis on the study of urban pocket parks in China from 2000 to 2022. The results indicate that the current research hotspots in this field are pocket parks, roadside green space, landscaping, vest-pocket park, public space, landscape architecture, micro green spaces, street green land, design strategy, planning and design, etc. The research progress of pocket parks is divided into three stages: basic research (2000—2006), steady progress (2007—2018), and rapid development (2019—2022). In the basic research stage, the paper mainly studies the basic theories of street green space and vest-pocket park, which are the predecessor of the concept of pocket park, such as the development status at home and abroad, humanized design, and behavioral psychology, which lays a good foundation for the research of pocket park in China. In the stage of steady progress, the concept of pocket park is clearly proposed, the connotation of pocket park is interpreted, and the basic strategy of pocket park planning and landscape design is summarized. In the stage of rapid development, the research perspective turns to more micro aspects such as urban renewal, spatial layout of pocket park in the context of park city, optimization strategy, accessibility, fairness, interactivity, and comprehensive evaluation, etc. The research focus includes basic research, planning and design research, and evaluation research. The basic research has systematically sorted out and summarized the concept and connotation, construction scale, construction types, and usage functions of pocket parks. The planning and design research has extracted design strategies related to pocket parks from aspects such as spatial layout, landscape design, and elderly-oriented design. The evaluation research has evaluated the current situation of pocket parks from three aspects: social benefits, landscape benefits, and spatial structure. The development directions of urban pocket park research in our country in the future include: research on collaborative group layout of multiple pocket parks and optimization of internal spatial layout of a single pocket park, optimization of landscape facility layout, and plant configuration and optimization; research on the adaptability of pocket parks to the elderly, children, accessibility, and humanization according to the behavioral characteristics and psychological needs of residents, based on the theoretical foundations of environmental behavior and environmental psychology; systematically study on the coupling relationship between pocket parks and the natural environmental effects in the area by comprehensively applying architectural environmental theory, Remote Sensing (RS) technology, and Geographic Information System(GIS) technology; normative research on design guidelines, construction, operation and maintenance standard paradigms of pocket parks; research on digitization of pocket parks design and intelligent operation and maintenance management, as well as evaluation system, evaluation method and statistical analysis of pocket parks on this basis.

  • ZHANG Wenyuan, CHEN Jiangyuan, TAN Guoxin
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2023, 25(8): 1531-1545.

    Geometric and semantic integration of 3D building models are important infrastructure data for smart city, they are conducive for promoting the refined management and intelligent application of building facilities. However, most of the existing point cloud-based modeling methods focus on the reconstruction of geometric models with simple roof structure, and semantic and topological relations are ignored. Moreover, these methods are sensitive to noise, which are difficult to assure topological consistency and geometric accuracy. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a 3D primitive fitting algorithm for automatically reconstructing building models with complex roof structure from point clouds. Firstly, a 3D building primitive library is designed, including various 3D building primitives with simple and complex roof types. Secondly, an individual building point cloud input is segmented into multiple planes using RANSAC algorithm. The Roof Topology Graph (RTG) is then generated according to the relationship of roof planes, and the roof type of point cloud is subsequently recognized by comparison of RTG between point cloud and building primitives. Thirdly, the reconstruction is formulated as an optimization problem that minimizes the Point-to-Mesh Distance (PMD) between the point cloud and the candidate meshed building primitive. The sequential quadratic programming optimization algorithm with necessary constraints is adopted to perform holistically primitive fitting, so as to estimate the shape and position parameters of a 3D primitive. Finally, the parameterized model is automatically converted into City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) building model based on the prior 3D building primitive. The generated CityGML LoD2 (second level of detail) models are different from mesh models created by conventional building modeling methods, which are represented with geometric, semantic, and topological information. To evaluate the quality and performance of the proposed approach, airborne lidar and photogrammetric building point clouds with different roof structures are collected from public datasets for test. Several building models with complex roof types are successfully reconstructed by using this approach, and the average PMD of five models is 0.17 m. The proposed algorithm is also compared with three other methods. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves the best geometric accuracy, because the average PMD of each model is less than that of other methods. Moreover, this automatic primitive fitting method is efficient, and it is also robust to noise and local data missing. This study demonstrates that the resulting building models can well fit the input point cloud with topologic integrity and rich semantic. This method provides great potential for accurate and rapid reconstruction of geometric-semantic coherent building models with complex roof condition.

  • JIANG Yifei, ZHANG Honglei, LI Mimi, SHEN Caiyun, ZHAI Shiyu
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2024, 26(2): 367-380.

    Tourism is an important part of the service industry. As the third space connecting the city and tourists and the main place for recreation and reception, the distribution pattern and spatial process of the tourism accommodation industry play an important role in promoting the co-evolution of the urban spatial structure. Under the background of informatization connection of supply and demand, improvement of transportation capacity, and multi-center development of cities, the site selection decision of the urban accommodation industry has shifted from focusing on traditional factors such as land rent, policy constraints, and consumption thresholds to comprehensively considering spatial factors such as the convenience of the transportation network and the proximity of service facilities. Shared accommodation is a typical representative of non-standard accommodation, that is, the house owner temporarily rents out all or part of the idle house to the lodger relying on the two-way trading platform on the Internet. Since entering the Chinese market in 2015, Airbnb has become a pioneer in the shared accommodation industry in China. Using space syntax and co-location quotient theory, combined with GIS spatial analysis technology, this paper selects the data of Airbnb's active listings, star-rated hotels, urban road network, and points of interest in Hong Kong in 2021 to construct the 'point-line-surface' research framework of 'accommodation unit-traffic axis-functional space' and analyze the spatial layout patterns of shared accommodation and traditional hotels, as well as the structural correlation characteristics with the form of urban road network and urban functional space. The results show that the shared accommodation presents the banded and clumpy distribution in the city center, and forms sub-cores in some new towns, transportation hubs, and tourist islands. Compared with traditional hotels, the shared accommodation is more affected by the road network form, and has higher requirements for traffic passing ability and neighborhood interaction space in visiting communities. On a global scale, the shared accommodation is more inclined to consider agglomeration effects and positive spillover effects when selecting locations. At the local scale, the shared accommodation mainly forms three types of associations with urban functional space: cluster-like association, group-like association, and scatter-like association. The correlation effect between the shared accommodation and the dining space is the most significant. This paper has theoretical significance and practical value for accurately understanding the multi-scale spatial distribution pattern of shared accommodation under the diversified consumption demands of modern cities, promoting the diversified and sustainable development of the urban accommodation industry, and guiding the rational and orderly allocation of urban recreational service resources.

  • LIU Jingyi, PENG Ju, TANG Jianbo, HU Zhiyuan, GUO Qi, YAO Chen, CHEN Jinyong
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2023, 25(7): 1363-1377.

    Trajectory clustering is a hot research topic in the field of spatial data mining, which is of great significance to many applications such as urban traffic control, road network construction and update. Trajectory clustering involves grouping similar trajectories into clusters where trajectory similarity measurement and clustering parameter setting are two core issues in the process of clustering. However, due to the complex morphological and structural characteristics of trajectories, the existing trajectory similarity measures are sensitive to noise or do not fully consider the consistency of trajectory motion direction. In addition, most clustering algorithms still need to manually set parameters, and the quality of clustering results is affected by the subjective experience of users. To address the above problems, this paper proposes an adaptive trajectory clustering algorithm. The proposed algorithm has two main components: a new trajectory similarity measure called Directed Segment-Path Distance (DSPD) and an improved hierarchical clustering algorithm based on the concept of central trajectory. The DSPD metric is a fusion of the spatial proximity and motion direction features of trajectories, providing a robust similarity measure. The enhanced hierarchical clustering algorithm extends the Ward hierarchical clustering algorithm by defining central trajectories and use the DSPD metric as the trajectory similarity measure. In addition, the proposed algorithm also utilizes the clustering characteristic curve to determine the optimal clustering parameters automatically. This eliminates the need for manual parameter tuning and reduces the subjectivity of clustering results. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, experiments were conducted on both the simulated datasets and real-world trajectories of Wuhan. We first compared the effect of the DSPD with other commonly used trajectory similarity measures (i.e., Hausdorff distance, Fréchet distance, DTW distance, and LCSS distance) using the same clustering algorithm on the 11 sets of simulated datasets. The evaluation was based on the Adjusted Rand Index (ARI). Then we conducted another comparative analysis to access the effectiveness of the improved clustering algorithm in contrast to an average link-based hierarchical clustering algorithm. Finally, to verify the practicability of the proposed algorithm, we applied it to the process of road network updating. The experimental results show that the proposed DSPD measure outperforms alternative distance metrics on the ARI evaluation indicator. It can effectively distinguish moving trajectory clusters in different directions while considering the spatial proximity of trajectories, thus enhancing the accuracy and effect of the trajectory clustering. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the subjectivity of clustering results and provide suggestions for practical applications such as urban road network extraction and update.

  • LUO Bin, REN Liqiu, MAO Yue, SHI Ruipeng, ZHU Yunqiang, WU Chaowei
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2023, 25(7): 1282-1296.

    With the development of big data and artificial intelligence, the scope of digital earth modeling has extended to full-time holography beyond the earth surface. However, the current data model of digital earth still remains in the data modelling of earth tile or grid subdivision. This model severely limits the application of scenario-based and intelligent digital earth development. This paper proposes the concept of digital holographic earth and a corresponding data organization model of earth data cube. By using global multi-level grid reference system to describe and express multi-scale space and using two or three-dimensional grid cells to describe spatial positions, the traditional spatiotemporal description of "longitude, latitude, elevation, and time" is transformed to a new spatiotemporal description system of "time granularity, time coverage, grid position, and grid scale". The proposed model is characterized by the dimensions of "time-space-scale-attribute" based on spatiotemporal big data in the digital earth. The model encapsulates vectors, rasters, grids, time series arrays, and 3D models into an unified system. This unified system ensures that any data value of a specific earth data cube is aligned perfectly in time, space, and scale, which solves the problem of multi-dimensional or spatiotemporal dynamic fusion of big earth data. Finally, this paper develops a deep-time and spatiotemporal dynamic visualization simulation system to verify the data model based on the requirements of the Deep-time Digital Earth International Science Program.