A ReversibleWatermakering Algrithm for Vector Map Based on Angle Modulating

  • 1. Key Laboratory of Virtual Geography Environment, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046, China;
    2. College of Geographic Science, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, China

Received date: 2012-11-08

  Revised date: 2013-01-03

  Online published: 2013-04-18


There is a decline in the quality of the original carrier when watermarking is embedded using the traditional technology. It can not meet the requirement of high-precision occasion and under the circumstance when original carrier data can not be tampered. Because the technology of reversible watermarking can completely recover the data of original vector map, it is highly suitable for the copyright protection with the high-precision requirement, for instance, military maps and maps provide evidence for the court. At present, the researches of reversible watermarking algorithm for image field become more mature, while the current reversible watermarking algorithm for vector map mainly refers to the relevant methods of the image field, having not fully considered the organization characteristic of the vector data, so the robustness is not strong. Aimed at the above issue, this paper carries out relevant researches on the algorithm of reversible watermarking of vector map. Based on the invariance of the basic spatial relationship of the points in vector map before and after conventional map operation, a robust reversible watermarking algorithm of vector map is introduced to resolve the problem. Firstly, Douglas- Poiker algorithm is used to classify the points of each feature into characteristic points and none characteristic points. Then the angle, constituted by the lines of each none characteristic point and two adjacent characteristic points, is computed by this algorithm. Finally, the watermarking bit is mapped by the angle and the water information is embedded into none characteristic point by modulating the angle mentioned above. The experiment shows that the watermarking using this paper’s algorithm not only has the transparency and reversibility of the general reversible watermarking, but also has good robustness to normal attacks, for instance, rotating, zooming, translating, feature ordering, graphic carving, data compressing, and graphic simplification, etc.

Cite this article

ZHANG Chi, LI An-Bei, LV Guo-Nian, LIN Bing-Xian . A ReversibleWatermakering Algrithm for Vector Map Based on Angle Modulating[J]. Journal of Geo-information Science, 2013 , 15(2) : 180 -186 . DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2013.00180


[1] 曹刘娟,门朝光,孙建国.基于空间特征的二维矢量地图可逆水印算法原理[J].测绘学报,2010,39(4):422-427.

[2] 张丽娟,李安波,闾国年,等.GIS 矢量数据的自适应水印研究[J].地球信息科学,2008,10(6):724-729.

[3] 刘爱利,闾国年.基于DCT域数字水印技术的DEM版权保护研究[J].地球信息科学,2008,10(2):214-223.

[4] Feng J B, Lin I C, Tsai C S,et al. Reversible watermarking:current status and key issues [J]. International Journal ofNetwork Security, 2006,2(3):161-170.

[5] Tian J. Reversible data embedding using a difference expansion[J]. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systemsfor Video Technology, 2003,13(8):890-893.

[6] Chang C C, Tai W L, Lin M H. A reversible data hidingscheme with modified side match vector quantization [C].Proceedings of the 19th International Conference onAdvancedInformation Networking and Applications, Taibei,2005,947-952.

[7] Voigt M,Yang B, Busch C. Reversible watermarking of2d-vector data[C]. ACM Int Workshop on Multimedia andSecurity, Magdeburg, Germany, 2004,160-165.

[8] Wang X T, Shao C Y, Xu X G, et al. Reversible data-hidingscheme for2-D vector maps based on difference expansion[J]. IEEE Trans. Information Forensics and Security, 2007,2(3):311-320.

[9] Zhao H, Du S J, Zhang D Z. A reversible watermarkingscheme for 2D vector drawings based on difference expansion[J]. IEEE 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Industrial Design & Conceptual Design,2010,1441-1446.

[10] 邵承永,王孝通,徐晓刚,等.矢量地图的无损数据隐藏算法研究[J].中国图象图形学报,2007,12(2):206-211.

[11] 武丹,汪国昭.基于差分扩张和平移的2D矢量地图的可逆水印[J].光电子·激光,2009,20(7):934-937.

[12] 陈钢,张茹,钮心忻,等.大容量矢量地图可逆水印算法[J].计算机工程,2010,36(21):129-131.

[13] 钟尚平,刘志峰,陈群杰.采用复合整数变换差值扩大法的矢量地图可逆水印算法[J].计算机辅助设计与图形学学报,2009,21(12):1839-1849.

[14] 李黎,李强,方晓君,等.基于差值扩大的2 维工程图可逆水印算法[J].中国图象图形学报,2010,15(3):372-377.

[15] 雷瑜洲.二维CAD工程图可逆水印算法研究[D].长沙:湖南大学,2010.

[16] 闵连权.一种鲁棒的矢量地图数据的数字水印[J].测绘学报,2008,37(2):262-269.

[17] 门朝光,曹刘娟,孙建国.图谱域的矢量地图可逆水印算法[J].哈尔滨工业大学学报,2009,41(12):83-87.