2016 , Vol. 18 >Issue 1: 21 - 31

Research and Experiments on Repairing and Correction of Ancient Maps

• ZHAO Kai , * ,
• JIANG Lili
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• Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
*Corresponding author: ZHAO Kai, E-mail:

Request revised date: 2015-07-09

Online published: 2016-01-10

《地球信息科学学报》编辑部 所有

### Abstract

The kilometer grid style and landscape painting style are two features of Chinese ancient maps. However, the positioning accuracy of ancient maps is very low due to the lack of a clear mathematical basis. It is difficult to apply map processing, map correction and geo-referencing on these ancient maps. This paper divides the current positioning datum of ancient maps into three types: one with no geo-reference, one with partial geo-reference, and one with definite geo-reference, and explores the map repairing methods from the following aspects: data selection, pre-processing, radiometric correction, and geographical information recovery. Besides, this paper takes some Chinese near modern maps as examples in several map matching experiments, adapts different spatial positioning methods, such as feature point correction, matching by grid, and relative position shift, to complete corrections between Chinese ancient maps and modern maps, and focuses on the mathematical relationship in the square grid maps and different geo-reference systems and projection systems. Finally, we try to establish the mathematical relationships between the corrected ancient maps and the accurate maps, and study the relationship between “six key points of mapping” and the modern coordinates system.

ZHAO Kai , JIANG Lili . Research and Experiments on Repairing and Correction of Ancient Maps[J]. Journal of Geo-information Science, 2016 , 18(1) : 21 -31 .

### 2 古地图品相和定位基准现状

#### 2.2 定位基准现状

（1）完全没有地理参考——山水形象画法

（2）有部分地理参考——计里画方

（3）有较精确地理参考——经纬度测量地图

### 4 古地图拼接方法实验

#### 4.1 大清全地图（较精确的地理参考）

《二十世纪中外大地图》是光绪三十二年（1906年）由清朝学者周世棠、孙海环编绘,由日本大坂合资会社印刷和新学会社于1906年6月印刷发行。其中,《中国全图》为彩图,蝴蝶装,采用了西方先进的编绘技术,比例尺为1:1200 000,扫描时分2幅扫描。《二十世纪中外大地图》反映了清末中国上对相邻国家的认知,为研究中国近代历史地理变迁提供了不可多得的历史资料[11]。地图的经纬度标注清晰,河流湖泊颜色分明,具有较精确的地理参考。这类地图在拼接时可利用地理配准（Geo-referencing）的思想,即选定一幅图作为基准,将其余图依次配准,这样首先可保证幅面内容拼接完全。这种配准的方式可最大限度地保证图上信息的切合程度。由于以选定的某一幅图为基准,所以在拼接前首先要确定基准（如变形矫正）,可使用Photoshop中的“编辑-自由变换”对图像进行局部调整,也可对水平和透视角度进行调整。一般来说,以外图廓分别为水平和竖直向为最优。配准点选取时,同时考虑地物和投影经纬线,一般选取经纬线交叉点和主地物衔接点。这里的主地图是指地图在目视上较为连贯的地物要素,如图6中的河流和边界线。

#### 4.2 长江图说（计里画方）

《长江图说》为清代马征（徵）麟撰,全书共12卷,前8卷为图说,后4卷为杂说,采用“计里画方”的方法绘制而成：框格采用红色印制,图形则用黑色绘制。自太平天国运动以来,清王朝对长江的军事作用达到前所未有的重视,同治九年(1870年)派马征麟绘制并编撰长江图说[12],记述了作者对长江历史的考辨意见,具有浓厚的军事地图特点,对于考订太平军失败之后清军的长江布防具有很大的价值。

#### 4.3 大清万年一统地理全图

《大清万年一统地理全图》(《大清万年一统地理全图》中有文字“全图内每方寸百里”,但图中并未画方,因此,按照“完全没有地理参考”的类型对其进行拼接处理。)为黄千人原绘,后又经增补为《清代全国舆地总图》,本图为石刻拓本,幅面分切为24张。图中省、府、直隶州、州、厅、县、关、土司等,均采用符号绘制并附有注记,河流、海洋、沙漠、山脉采用写意法绘制。这类地图没有较精确的地理参考和投影信息,地物要素变成了唯一的参照物。拼接前首先要先对图上内容分析,确定拼接时首要参照地物。图中较为明确的地物特征为河流（黄河和长江）,故以这2条河流为参照地物。

### 6 结语

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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