地球信息科学学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (4): 723-736.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2021.200029

• 遥感科学与应用技术 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于最优极化特征组合的SAR影像湿地分类

赵泉华*(), 冯林达, 李玉   

  1. 辽宁工程技术大学 测绘与地理科学学院遥感科学与应用研究所,阜新 123000
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-10 修回日期:2020-04-14 出版日期:2021-04-25 发布日期:2021-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 赵泉华
  • 作者简介:赵泉华(1978— ),女,河北承德人,博士,教授,主要从事随机几何、空间统计学、模糊集理论等在遥感图像建模、解译及海洋环境遥感等研究。E-mail: zqhlby@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    辽宁省教育厅科学技术研究项目(LJ2019JL001)

Wetland Classification of SAR Image based on the Polarization Characteristics Combination

ZHAO Quanhua*(), FENG Linda, LI Yu   

  1. Institute for Remote Sensing Science and Application, School of Geomatics, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin 123000, China
  • Received:2020-01-10 Revised:2020-04-14 Online:2021-04-25 Published:2021-06-25
  • Contact: ZHAO Quanhua
  • Supported by:
    The Project of Science and Technology Research of Education Department of Liaoning Province(LJ2019JL001)

摘要:

快速、准确的湿地地物分类是实现湿地精准监测的基础。为进一步研究湿地地物显著极化特征对分类结果的影响,提出了基于最优极化特征组合的SAR影像湿地分类方法。该方法利用箱型图等方式,在特征选择因子等准则下从多种极化分解方法选择最优极化特征进行组合,并在此基础上实现分类。首先,为了简化极化合成孔径雷达(Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar, PolSAR)影像并降低其斑点噪声,对互易处理后的极化SAR影像进行多视化和精致Lee滤波。然后,进行6种极化分解,得到多种极化特征。再之,利用箱型图、Cloude-Pottier平面散点图和均值散点图详尽分析上述极化特征和双台河口湿地典型地物散射机制间的相关性,并据此在特征选择因子、特征判断因子、H/α平面等和均值标准差的准则下选择最优极化特征组合。最后,以上述最优极化特征组合为输入,设计支持向量机(Support Vector Machine, SVM)分类器,实现湿地的最优分类。本文以辽宁省盘锦市辽河入海口双台河口湿地为例,采用2016年7月的C波段Radarsat-2全极化数据验证最优极化特征组合的有效性。结果表明:① Cloude-Pottier分解的HAα、MCSM (Multiple-Component Scattering Model )分解的表面散射、Pauli分解的T33与Yamaguchi3分解的表面散射和二面角散射为最优极化特征;② 使用最优极化特征组合不仅可以减少极化特征冗余,还可以提高各湿地地物的生产者精度、分类总精度及Kappa系数,其中各湿地地物的生产者精度提高1%~5%,分类的总精度可达到94.25%,Kappa系数达到93.63%。

关键词: 双台河口湿地, 极化分解, 特征提取, 极化特征分析, 极化特征选择, 湿地分类, 支持向量机, SAR影像

Abstract:

Rapid and accurate classification of wetland features is the basis of accurate wetland monitoring. The key to improve the classification accuracy is to select the best polarization characteristics combination among many polarization characteristics. And in order to further study the influence of significant polarization characteristics of wetland features on classification results, a classification method based on the polarization decomposition characteristics of typical features in this area is proposed. In this method, the optimal polarization characteristics are selected and combined from a variety of polarization decomposition methods under the criteria of feature selection factors and so on by using the box plots, and then the classification is realized on this basis. Firstly, in order to simplify and reduce the speckle noises of PolSAR (Polimertice Synthetic Aperture Radar) image, the original four polarization images are processed by reciprocity, and the three polarization images after reciprocity are processed by multi-looks processing and Refined Lee filtering. Secondly, the data are decomposed into six kinds of polarization decompositions, such as Cloude-Pottierde decomposition and Paulide decomposition, and the polarization characteristics are extracted according to the decomposition results. Thirdly, the correlation between the above polarization characteristics and the scattering mechanism of typical features of Shuangtai Estuary wetland is analyzed in detail by using the box plots, Cloude-Pottier plane scatter plots and power mean scatter plots, and some polarization characteristics are selected under the criteria of feature selection factor, feature judgment factor, H/α plane, A/α plane, H/A plane, mean and standard variance. The selected polarization characteristics are combined. Finally, on the basis of the optimal polarization characteristics combination, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is designed to achieve the optimal classification of wetland features. Shuangtai Estuary, located at the estuary of Liaohe River in Panjin, Liaoning Province, is known as the "world's largest reed field". In order to verify the effectiveness of the optimal polarization characteristics combination, the C-band Radarsat-2 full polarization data in July, 2016 are utilized as experimental data. Through the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the proposed and the compared algorithm, the conclusions are as follows: the polarimetric entropy H, average alpha angle α and anisotropy A of the Cloude-Pottier decomposition, the single-bounce scattering of MCSM (Multiple-Component Scattering Model) decomposition, T33 of Pauli decomposition, the single-bounce and the double-bounce scattering of Yamaguchi3 decomposition are the optimal polarization characteristics on the one hand, and on the other hand, the optimal polarization characteristics combination can not only reduce the data redundancy and the calculation, and improve the classification efficiency, but also accurately represent the features and improve the producer's accuracy of each wetland category, the overall accuracy and kappa coefficient. Among them, the producer's accuracy of the wetland features has increased by 1% to 5%, the overall accuracyand kappa coefficient can reach 94.25% and 93.63% respectively.

Key words: Shuangtai Estuary, polarization decomposition, feature extraction, polarization characteristic analysis, polarization characteristic selection, wetland classification, SVM (Support Vector Machine), synthetic aperture radar image