地球信息科学学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (4): 617-631.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2021.200333

• 地球信息科学理论与方法 • 上一篇    下一篇

山地城市公交系统服务在老年人群体中分配公平性评价

段梅花1(), 赵航1,*(), 龙立美1, 欧仁教2   

  1. 1.贵州师范大学地理与环境科学学院,贵阳 550001
    2.锦屏中学地理组,锦屏 556700
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-28 修回日期:2020-08-25 出版日期:2021-04-25 发布日期:2021-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 赵航
  • 作者简介:段梅花(1995— ),女,云南保山人,硕士生,主要从事区域发展与规划研究。E-mail: 2621459769@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金地区科学基金项目(71864008);贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合平台人才[2018]5769号)

The Evaluation of Allocation Fairness to Urban Transit System Service for the Elderly in Mountainous City

DUAN Meihua1(), ZHAO Hang1,*(), LONG Limei1, OU Renjiao2   

  1. 1. School of Geographic and Environmental Sciences, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001, China
    2. Group of Geographic, Jinping Middle School,Jinping 556700, China
  • Received:2020-06-28 Revised:2020-08-25 Online:2021-04-25 Published:2021-06-25
  • Contact: ZHAO Hang
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant(71864008);Science and Technology Program Project of Guizhou(Platform Talents[2018]5769)

摘要:

公交系统作为一种面向公众全体尤其是弱势群体的公共服务设施,其公平性对于促进宜居城市与公交都市建设具有较大的现实意义。本研究考虑山地城市地形变化的影响,提出了一类测度公交站点实际服务范围的新方法来修正公交服务供给公平性评价模型,并以贵阳市为例,对贵阳市公交系统服务供给在老年群体中分配的公平性进行分析。研究结果表明: ① 山地城市地形影响下的公交站点实际服务范围将降低,公交供给服务水平明显下降;② “常规+BRT(Bus Rapid Transit快速公交)”公交系统服务供给在老年人群体中分配公平性程度处于差距悬殊等级,且分配呈现出两极分化趋势;“常规+BRT”公交系统服务供给在老年人群体中空间配置失衡较为显著,城市核心区老年群体较为集聚,然而享有的人均“常规+BRT”公交系统服务供给低于整体水平;③ 若增加轨道1号线,“常规+BRT”公交系统服务供给在老年人群体中分配呈现出的两极分化趋势在一定程度上得到了缓解;“常规+BRT”公交系统服务供给在老年人群体中的空间配置失衡得到一定改善。研究结果能为山地城市交通规划部门合理布局公交系统服务供给设施提供理论参考。结合山地城市地形变化特点,本研究针对公交系统服务供给存在的公平性问题,提出了相应的优化建议。

关键词: 山地城市, 城市公交系统, 服务范围, 服务供给, 老年人群, 公交公平性, 空间配置, 贵阳市

Abstract:

Urban transit system is a public service facility oriented for the public, especially the vulnerable groups. The fairness of urban transit service is of great significance for promoting the construction of livable and transit-oriented cities. Considering the impact of terrain variation in mountainous cities, an innovative approach is proposed to measure the actual service scope of transit stops to modify the fairness evaluation model of transit service. Taking Guiyang city as an example, the fairness of transit service is analyzed for the elderly group in Guiyang. The results show that: (1) Due to the influence of the terrain of the mountainous city, the actual service scope of stops and the number of residents covered will decrease. The service scope of transit supply has decreased significantly. Considering the terrain factors, the service supply scope of transit system based on modified model is more consistent with the actual situation of mountainous cities; (2) The distribution of service supply of "Bus + BRT (Bus Rapid Transit)" transit system for the elderly group presents a circle structure, which gradually decreases from the core area to the periphery of the urban area. The fairness of transit service supply of "Bus + BRT" transit system among the elderly groups is at a great disparity level, and its distribution tends to be polarized. The spatial allocation of "Bus + BRT" transit system service supply in the elderly group is significantly unbalanced. Although the elderly group is more concentrated in the urban core, the per capita service supply of "Bus + BRT" transit system is lower than the average level. (3) When Rail Transit line 1 is added to the "Bus + BRT" transit system, the transit service supply presents an irregular "core-periphery" structure around the Rail Line 1. The polarization trend of the service supply from "Bus + BRT"transit system among the elderly group decreased, and the unbalanced spatial allocation of "Bus + BRT" transit system service supply among the elderly group was improved. Rail transit operation exerts a significant effect on the improvement of urban transit service supply. The research results could provide a theoretical reference for the transportation planning department of mountainous cities to reasonably carry out the layout of service supply facilities in urban transit system. Combined with terrain variation characteristics of mountainous city, some suggestions are also proposed to promote the fairness of the service supply of urban transit system in Guiyang.

Key words: mountainous city, urban transit system, service scope, service supply, elderly group, transit fairness, spatial allocation, Guiyang