地球信息科学学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (3): 483-494.doi: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2022.210260

• 地球信息科学理论与方法 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于网络地图的多交通模式医疗设施可达性分析

郭琛琛1,2(), 梁娟珠1,2,*()   

  1. 1.福州大学 数字中国研究院(福建),福州 350003
    2.空间数据挖掘与信息共享教育部重点实验室,福州 350003
  • 收稿日期:2021-05-11 修回日期:2021-07-05 出版日期:2022-03-25 发布日期:2022-05-25
  • 通讯作者: *梁娟珠(1978— ),女,福建福清人,博士,副研究员,主要从事地理信息工程的研究。E-mail: liangjuanzhu@163.com
  • 作者简介:郭琛琛(1994— ),男,安徽淮北人,硕士生,主要从事时空大数据挖掘研究。E-mail: guochen2287@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    福建省科技计划项目(2020L3005)

Accessibility Analysis of Medical Facilities based on Multiple Transportation Modes of Network Map

GUO Chenchen1,2(), LIANG Juanzhu1,2,*()   

  1. 1. Digital China Research Institute (Fujian), Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350003, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Spatial Data Mining and Information Sharing, Ministry of Education, Fuzhou 350003, China
  • Received:2021-05-11 Revised:2021-07-05 Online:2022-03-25 Published:2022-05-25
  • Supported by:
    Science and Technology Program of Fujian Province(2020L3005)

摘要:

由于城镇化发展迅速、居民对医疗服务需求的提高,使得城市人口密集区域医疗服务压力增大,因此进行医疗服务设施可达性分析具有重要意义。本文以福州市主城区为例,医疗数据来自于福州市卫健委,利用爬虫技术获得小区户数进行人口估算,基于早、中、晚各时段的实时路况信息,计算居民点到医疗服务设施的最优路径旅行时间,并绘制医疗服务等时区,利用高斯距离衰减函数改进的两步移动搜法(Gaussian-Two Step Floating Catchment Area Method, Ga-2SFCA),考虑出行模式,对福州市主城区二级以上医院进行可达性分析。结果表明:① 驾车出行模式下,医疗服务覆盖率和居民就医可达性要明显好于公共交通出行模式;② 驾车出行模式下,医疗服务可达性受出行时段影响较大;而公共交通出行方式下,各时段差异较小;③ 随着时间阈值的增大,居民点的医疗服务可达性等级提升,且高等级可达性范围逐渐扩大;④ 驾车模式下的医疗可达性空间分布和道路保持一致,呈现出“环线层次”的现象;而公共交通模式下的可达性空间分布由于受到城市公交微循环系统的影响,呈现出“轴向扩张”的现象。

关键词: 医疗服务设施, 公共交通, 驾车, 百度地图, 旅行成本, 可达性, 高斯两步移动搜索法, 福州市主城区

Abstract:

Owing to the rapid advent of urbanization and the increasing demand for medical services by residents, the pressure on medical services in densely populated areas is surging. The analysis of the accessibility of medical service facilities is of primordial importance. In this study, the medical data was garnered from the Fuzhou Municipal Health Commission, and the crawler technology was used to yield the number of residential households to estimate the population. By use of the Baidu map to obtain the real time road condition information of the peak and non-peak time periods, the access time under the optimal route from the community residential districts to the hospital based on the real-time road condition was calculated, and the time zones of medical services were drawn. The accessibility of general hospitals in the main urban area of Fuzhou was analyzed using the two-step mobile (Ga-2SFCA) search method boosted by the Gaussian distance attenuation function, considering factors such as the travel mode, searching time threshold, and travel peak hours. The results yielded show that: (1) By integrating Baidu Map API into Ga-2SFCA model, multivariate and fine-grained analysis of accessibility was implemented, leading to the accurate measurement of urban medical service supply and demand; (2) The time cost of public transportation at different periods was less affected by traffic congestion, and reaching tertiary hospitals was faster. Under the premise of advocating green transportation, this mode of public transportation was recommended for medical treatment; (3) Under different conditions, the accessibility of medical facilities depended on the space of residential differentiation characteristics significantly, on the whole presenting a "single center" and "diminishing layer coil" distribution. High accessibility of residential areas was mainly distributed in urban core areas, and the lower level of accessibility settlement distribution was in the peripheral urban areas. However, other factors can also influence accessibility, such as the time threshold. The accessibility level of medical services markedly differed with the transportation mode, and the accessibility of medical services was significantly higher along the subway. The choice of off-peak travel time can effectively improve the level of medical service; (4) Due to the layout of urban expressways, the spatial distribution of medical accessibility in driving mode was consistent with that of roads, presenting a "loop level" pattern. However, the spatial distribution of accessibility under the public transport mode was affected by the urban bus microcirculation system, displaying the trait of "axial expansion." The method used in this paper provides a new scientific method for refined measurement and analysis of the accessibility of medical service facilities.

Key words: medical service facilities, public transport, driving, baidu map, travel cost, accessibility, gauss two-step floating catchment area method, the central urban areas of Fuzhou